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Dedicated
04-27-2004, 08:44 PM
Ok so this stuff supposedly has zero calories. I'm thinking of getting some and wondering if it's bad for you. I remember a while back reading that artificial sweeteners were bad for you etc. Anyone here take it? I plan to start eating everything with this stuff, providing the stuff isn't harmful in large quantities, I need some flavor in my diet!! I'm on a cut and well I like to make every calorie count because there aren't that many to go around hehe. What do you guys think, any opinions would be great.

bgs1154
04-27-2004, 11:09 PM
I just added it to my diet. Compared to aspertame I think it's a lot better. Doesn't have that bitter after taste and also taste a lot more like sugar. As for the calorie content I've heard, but not sure that it does have a couple calories, but is listed as 0 on box becuase below 5 calories they just list as zero, but hell you can burn that in probably less than 30 seconds of sitting on your ass. And is it toxic consumed in large amounts? Probably not but I'm not sure anything can be good in really large amounts... well except sex of course :)

Shao-LiN
04-28-2004, 12:37 AM
Ah, but sex can cause heart failure too =P.

ogarchamplin
04-28-2004, 02:32 PM
Ok so this stuff supposedly has zero calories. I'm thinking of getting some and wondering if it's bad for you. I remember a while back reading that artificial sweeteners were bad for you etc. Anyone here take it? I plan to start eating everything with this stuff, providing the stuff isn't harmful in large quantities, I need some flavor in my diet!! I'm on a cut and well I like to make every calorie count because there aren't that many to go around hehe. What do you guys think, any opinions would be great.

The Good

Everything You Need to Know About Sucralose
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------



May 1998


Favorably Reviewed by:
American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation

PDF Version


Sucralose is the only low-calorie sweetener made from sugar. It is about 600 times sweeter than sugar and can be used like sugar in a broad range of foods. Sucralose can be used in place of sugar to eliminate or reduce calories in a wide variety of products, including beverages, baked goods, desserts, dairy products, canned fruits, syrups and condiments.

Sucralose was discovered in 1976. More than 100 scientific studies conducted over a 20 year period have conclusively determined that sucralose is safe for everyone to consume. Sucralose was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1990. Sucralose has been approved by prominent regulatory authorities throughout the world, and has been consumed by millions of people internationally since 1991.

What is sucralose?

Sucralose is the only low-calorie sweetener made from sugar. It is used around the world as an ingredient in low-calorie processed foods and beverages, and as a tabletop sweetener available to consumers in supermarkets and other consumer outlets.

What is sucralose made of?

Sucralose is derived from sugar through a patented, multistep process that selectively substitutes three chlorine atoms for three hydrogen-oxygen groups on the sugar molecule. The tightly bound chlorine atoms create a molecular structure that is exceptionally stable and is approximately 600 times sweeter than sugar.

Is sucralose safe?

Yes. More than 100 scientific studies over a 20 year period have demonstrated the safety of sucralose. Importantly, comprehensive toxicology studies, designed to meet the highest scientific standards, have clearly demonstrated that sucralose is not carcinogenic. The data from the studies were independently evaluated by international experts in a variety of scientific disciplines, including toxicology, oncology, teratology, neurology, hematology, pediatrics and nutrition. What regulatory bodies reviewed the safety profile of sucralose? In addition to the FDA, the safety of sucralose has been confirmed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA); the Health Protection Branch of Health and Welfare Canada; the National Food Authority of Australia; and the health ministries of Argentina, Brazil, China, and Mexico, for a total of more than 30 countries throughout the world.

Types of Products That Contain Sucralose

Sucralose makes low-calorie versions of a wide variety of products possible, including soft drinks, ice cream, dairy products and baked goods. One of the unique attributes of sucralose is that it can be used virtually like sugar without losing any of its sugar-like sweetness, even in applications that require prolonged exposure to high temperatures. Thus, products made with sucralose maintain their sweetness during cooking and baking, and in storage for long periods. In the United States, the FDA has granted approval for the use of sucralose in 15 food and beverage categories:

Baked goods and baking mixes
Beverages and beverage bases
Chewing gum
Coffee and tea
Confections and frostings
Dairy products analogs
Fats and oils (salad dressings)
Frozen dairy desserts and mixes
Fruit and water ices
Gelatins, puddings and fillings
Jams and jellies
Milk products
Processed fruits and fruit juices
Sugar substitutes
Sweet sauces, toppings and syrups
Do products sweetened with sucralose carry any warning labels or information statements?
No. The regulatory agencies and scientific review bodies that have endorsed the safety of sucralose have not required any warning information to be placed on the labels of products sweetened with sucralose. Does sucralose provide calories?Sucralose itself has no calories. When it is used to sweeten foods or beverages, it adds no calories. However, products made with sucralose sometimes do contain calories from other sources, such as carbohydrates, proteins and fat. How is sucralose handled by the body?Although sucralose is made from sugar, the body does not recognize it as sugar or another carbohydrate. The sucralose molecule passes through the body unchanged, is not metabolized, and is eliminated after consumption.

Is the chlorine in sucralose potentially harmful?

No. Chlorine, in the form of chloride, is a safe and natural element present in many of the foods and beverages that we eat and drink every day. It is in most natural water supplies, and is also found in lettuce, tomatoes, mushrooms, melons, peanut butter and table salt. In the case of sucralose, the addition of chlorine to the sucralose molecule is what makes sucralose free of calories. Chlorine renders the sucralose molecule chemically and biologically inert so that sucralose passes through the body without being metabolized and is eliminated after consumption.

Products sweetened with sucralose provide good-tasting, lower-calorie alternatives...

How much sucralose may people safely consume?

Studies have shown that the amount of sucralose which might be consumed by individuals, even if consumed every day throughout a person╣s lifetime, would still be considered safe by a wide margin by U.S. and international health authorities.

The Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for sucralose, established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, is 5 mg/kg of body weight per day.

Can people with diabetes use sucralose?

Numerous studies have shown that sucralose can be safely consumed by people with diabetes. Sucralose is not recognized by the body as sugar or as a carbohydrate. It is not metabolized by the body for energy and does not affect blood glucose levels. Sucralose has no effect on blood glucose utilization, carbohydrate metabolism or insulin production. Products sweetened with sucralose provide good-tasting, lower-calorie alternatives for people with diabetes who are interested in reducing their caloric or sugar intake. As with any nutritional concerns, people with diabetes should consult their doctor or diabetes healthcare professional for advice on an individualized dietary plan.

Can pregnant and breastfeeding women consume sucralose?

Sucralose can be used by everyone, including pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers. Although sucralose may be used as part of a healthy pre- and post-natal diet, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should talk to their doctor or nutritionist about foods to eat to support their health, and their baby╣s health, during these special times.

Is sucralose safe for children?

Foods and beverages sweetened with sucralose are not hazardous to a young person╣s health. One should note, however, that foods made with low-calorie sweeteners are not normally a recommended part of a child╣s diet, since energy from carbohydrates is important to a growing child╣s body.

What is the role of sucralose in a healthy diet?

Sucralose may be used as part of a healthy diet which includes a variety of nutritious foods in moderate portions. Because sucralose offers the sweet taste of sugar without the calories and is ideal for cooking and baking, it helps meet consumer demand for good-tasting foods and beverages without the calories of sugar.

The American Academy Of Family Physicians Foundation Has Favorably Reviewed This Material. Favorable Review Means That Medical Information Is Accurate, But Does Not Imply Endorsement Of Any Conclusions Presented.

ogarchamplin
04-28-2004, 02:34 PM
Ok so this stuff supposedly has zero calories. I'm thinking of getting some and wondering if it's bad for you. I remember a while back reading that artificial sweeteners were bad for you etc. Anyone here take it? I plan to start eating everything with this stuff, providing the stuff isn't harmful in large quantities, I need some flavor in my diet!! I'm on a cut and well I like to make every calorie count because there aren't that many to go around hehe. What do you guys think, any opinions would be great.

The other opinion

The Potential Dangers of Sucralose

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There's a new artificial sweetener on the block and it is already in a wide range of products, some even sold in health food stores and manufactured by nutritionally-oriented companies. But is it proven safe? Does it provide any benefit to the public? Does it help with weight loss? Are there any long term human studies? Has it been shown to be safe for the environment? The answer to all of these questions is unfortunately a resounding NO.

The artificial sweetener sucralose, which is sold under the name SplendaÖ, is one of the up-and-coming "next generation" of high-intensity sugar substitutes. It is non-caloric and about 600 times sweeter than sucrose (white table sugar), although it can vary from 320 tp 1,000 times sweeter, depending on the food application. The white crystalline powder tastes like a lot like sugar, but is more intense in its sweetness.

How it is Manufactured

Sucralose is produced by chlorinating sugar (sucrose). This involves chemically changing the structure of the sugar molecules by substituting three chlorine atoms for three hydroxyl groups.

History

Sucralose was discovered in 1976 by researchers working under the auspices of Tate & Lyle Ltd., a large British sugar refiner. In 1980, Tate & Lyle arranged with Johnson & Johnson, the world's largest health care company, to develop sucralose. Johnson & Johnson formed McNeil Speciality Products Company in 1980 to commercialize sucralose.


In 1991, Canada became the first nation to approve the use of sucralose.


In April, 1998 the US Food and Drug Administration granted approval for sucralose to be used in a variety of food products. Diet RC cola was the first US product with sucralose, introduced in May 1998.


Sucralose is not yet approved for use in most European countries, where it is still under review.

Safety Concerns

Few human studies of safety have been published on sucralose. One small study of diabetic patients using the sweetener showed a statistically significant increase in glycosylated hemoglobin (Hba1C), which is a marker of long-term blood glucose levels and is used to assess glycemic control in diabetic patients. According to the FDA, "increases in glycosolation in hemoglobin imply lessening of control of diabetes.

Research in animals has shown that sucralose can cause many problems in rats, mice, and rabbits, such as:


Shrunken thymus glands (up to 40% shrinkage)
Enlarged liver and kidneys.
Atrophy of lymph follicles in the spleen and thymus
Increased cecal weight
Reduced growth rate
Decreased red blood cell count
Hyperplasia of the pelvis
Extension of the pregnancy period
Aborted pregnancy
Decreased fetal body weights and placental weights
Diarrhea
According to one source (Sucralose Toxicity Information Center), concerning the significant reduction in size of the thymus gland, "the manufacturer claimed that the sucralose was unpleasant for the rodents to eat in large doses and that starvation caused the shruken thymus glands.


[Toxicologist Judith] Bellin reviewed studies on rats starved under experimental conditions, and concluded that their growth rate could be reduced by as much as a third without the thymus losing a significant amount of weight (less than 7 percent). The changes were much more marked in rats fed on sucralose. While the animals' growth rate was reduced by between 7 and 20 percent, their thymuses shrank by as much as 40 percent. (New Scientist 23 Nov 1991, pg 13)"
A compound chemically related to sucrose, 6-chloro-deoxyglucose, is known to have anti-fertility and neurotoxic effects, although animal studies of sucralose have not shown these effects.

According to the FDA's "Final Rule" report, "Sucralose was weakly mutagenic in a mouse lymphoma mutation assay." The FDA aslo reported many other tests as having "inconclusive" results.

Just how few studies currently exist on sucralose is an issue. Endurance News provides the following table illustrating this fact:

Sweetener # of Studies*
Saccharin 2374
Aspartame 598
Cyclamates 459
Acesulfame-K 28
Sucralose 19

*Number of studies determined by MEDLINE search.

In terms of safety, it is not just the original substance (sucralose) that one needs to worry about. As the FDA notes, "Because sucralose may hydrolyze in some food products...the resulting hydrolysis products may also be ingested by the consumer."

Is There Any Long-Term Human Research?

None. According to the Medical Letter on Drugs & Therapeutics, "Its long-term safety is unknown." According to the Sucralose Toxicity Information Center, the "Manufacturer's '100's of studies' (some of which show hazards) were clearly inadequate and do not demonstrate safety in long-term use."

Is Sucralose Absorbed or Metabolized?

Despite the manufacturer's claims to the contrary, sucralose is significantly absorbed and metabolized by the body. According to the FDA's "Final Rule" report, 11% to 27% of sucralose is absorbed in humans, and the rest is excreted unchanged in feces. According to the Japanese Food Sanitation Council, as much as 40% of ingested sucralose is absorbed.

Plasma sucralose has been reported to have a half-life of anywhere from 2 to 5 hours in most studies, although the half-life in rabbits was found to be much longer at about 36 hours.

About 20% to 30% of absorbed sucralose is metabolized. Both the metabolites and unchanged absorbed sucralose are excreted in urine. The absorbed sucralose has been found to concentrate in the liver, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. According to The Sucralose Toxicity Information Center, sucralose is broken down "into small amounts of 1,6-dichlorofructose, a chemical which has not been adequtely tested in humans."

Chlorinated Pesticides


According to Consumers Research Magazine "Some concern was raised about sucralose being a chlorinated molecule. Some chlorinated molecules serve as the basis for pesticides such as D.D.T., and accumulate in body fat. However, Johnson & Johnson emphasized that sucralose passes through the body unabsorbed."


Of course, this assertion about not being absorbed is complete nonsense. As shown above, a substantial amount of sucralose is absorbed, so the argument is not valid.


According to the HAD, "The manufacturer claims that the chlorine added to sucralose is similar to the chlorine atom in the salt (NaCl) molecule. That is not the case. Sucralose may be more like ingesting tiny amounts of chlorinated pesticides, but we will never know without long-term, independent human research."

Contaminants

The FDA acknowledges that sucralose "is produced at an approximate purity of 98%." While that may sound pretty pure, just what is in that other 2%? It turns out that the final sucralose product contains small amounts of potentially dangerous substances such as:


Heavy Metals (e.g., Lead)
Arsenic
Triphenilphosphine Oxide
Methanol
Chlorinated Disaccharides
Chlorinated Monosaccharide
Although manufacturing guidelines do specify limits on these substances there is no guarantee that such limits will always be met.

Environmental Concerns

Despite the fact that a portion of sucralose is metabolized into some chemicals of questionable safety, a majory of the consumed sucralose is excreted unchanged in the feces and urine. While that may be good for the person using the product, it may not be so great for the environment.

Although sucralose is being flushed down toilets wherever sucralose is approved for sale, what happens to it next is simply a matter for speculation. I know of no studies showing what happens to the chemical when the raw sewage is treated and then released back into the environment.


Does it remain stabile or react with other substances to form new compounds?

Is the sucralose or any resulting chemicals safe for the environment?

How will this chemical affect aquatic life such as fish, as well as other animals?

Will sucralose begin to appear in our water supplies, just as some drugs are beginning to be found.
Of course, we will likely not know the answers to these questions for many years, if at all. One of the main reasons for this is that the FDA did not require an Environmental Impact Statement for sucralose, because in their words, "the action will not have a significant impact on the human environment."

One study did find that sucralose is metabolized by microrganisms in both the water and soil (Labare 94). However, the ecological impact of this new chemical being introduced into the environment is unknown.

Is There a Benefit for Consumers?

According to Consumers' Research Magazine, sucralose provides some benefits for the corporations making and using it, but not for consumers. They state:



But are such foods truly beneficial and desirable? Diabetics, weight watchers, and the general public might make better food choices by selecting basic, rather than highly processed foods; for example, apples, rather than turnovers; or plain, rather than sweetened, dairy foods.
They note that non-caloric artificial sweeteners are not replacing, but rather supplementing conventional sweeteners. They note that as of 1990 Americans were consuming an average of 20 pounds (sugar sweetness equivalency) of artificial sweeteners, and as consumption of sugar-substitutes has risen so too has consumption of sugar.

Does Sucralose Help with Weight Loss?

According to Consumers' Research Magazine "There is no clear-cut evidence that sugar substitutes are useful in weight reduction. On the contrary, there is some evidence that these substances may stimulate appetite."

Where is Sucralose Found?

In the United States, the FDA has granted approval for the use of sucralose in 15 food and beverage categories: (For a complete list of products containing sucralose CLICK HERE)


Baked goods and baking mixes
Chewing gum
Confections and frostings
Fats and oils (salad dressings)
Fruit and water ices
Jams and jellies
Processed fruits and fruit juices
Sweet sauces, toppings and syrups
Beverages and beverage bases
Coffee and tea
Dairy product analogs
Frozen dairy desserts and mixes

Gelatins, puddings and fillings

Milk products
Sugar substitutes

Also, check out the complete list of products containing sucralose.
Comparison to Other Sweeteners


Its promoters cite several benefits over other sweeteners, such as:



Unlike saccharin, sucralose leaves no bitter aftertaste.
Unlike other artificial sweeteners, it remains stable at high temperatures.
Unlike sugar, it does not raise blood glucose levels
As a comparison to sucralose's 600-fold sweetness increase over sugar, consider the other artificial sweeteners on the market:



Saccharin (Sweet-and -Low) - 300 to 500 times sweeter
Aspartame (NutraSweet and Equal) - 150 to 200 times sweeter
Acesulfame K (Sunette) - 200 times sweeter.
Big Business

A 1998 report in Chemical Week states that the high-intensity sweetener market is about $1.5-billion/year. About 70%-80% of that market is made up of soft drink sweeteners, of which aspartame has a near monopoly. They note that although sucralose is 50% sweeter than aspartame, it will be difficult to persuade many soft drink producers to give up NutraSweet (aspartame) since it is widely accepted by consumers.

Is Anyone Monitoring Post-Approval Reactions?

Apparently not. With no established system for monitoring and tracking post-approval adverse effects, how can it ever be established whether large-scale and long-term consumption of sucralose is safe?

Technical Information

Sucralose is made from sucrose by substituting three chlorine atoms for three hydroxyl groups to yield 1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-BETA-D-fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranoside. This is accomplished in a five-step process.

Prolonged storage, particularly at high temperatures and low pH, causes the sucralose to break down into 4-chloro-4-deoxy-galactose (4CG) and 1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxyfructose (1,6 DCF),

The Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number (CAS Reg. No.) for sucralose is 56038-13-2.

Science Behind Sucralose Toxicity

Here are some of the specific biochemical reasons why you will want to give serious consideration to consuming sucralose.

Much of the concern is related to the fact that the manufacturer of sucralose claims that it is derived from sugar that contains the monosaccharide sucrose.

Look at the chemical name of sucralose: 1,6-Dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranoside. One would have expected that a product "made form sugar" as they say on the box, would be called: 1,6-Dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside.

Why does this molecule contain a chlorinated galactose moiety rather than a chlorinated glucose moiety if it is made from sucrose? When the molecule is hydrolyzed, chlorinated monosaccharides are produced from the product. Could it be that sucrose is not used due to the toxicity of chlorinated glucose?

Should Sucralose be Avoided?

The Holistic Medicine Web Page cites the following reasons to avoid sucralose:


Pre-approval tests indicated potential toxicity of sucralose.
There are no *independent* controlled human studies on sucralose (similar to 15 years ago for aspartame).

There are no long-term (12-24 months) human studies of sucralose's effects.
There is no monitoring of health effects. It took government agencies decades to agree that there were countless thousands of deaths from tobacco. Why? Simply because there had been no monitoring or epidemiological studies. Without such monitoring and studies, huge effects can easily go unnoticed.
Do Products with Sucralose Carry Any Warning Labels Or Information Statements?


No. The regulatory agencies and scientific review bodies that have endorsed the safety of sucralose have not required any warning information to be placed on the labels of products sweetened with sucralose.

Conclusions

The Sucralose Toxicity Information Center concludes that:


While it is unlikely that sucralose is as toxic as the poisoning people are experiencing from Monsanato's aspartame, it is clear from the hazards seen in pre-approval research and from its chemical structure that years or decades of use may contribute to serious chronic immunological or neurological disorders.
The Consumer's Research Magazine concludes that:



As Americans continue to choose ever-increasing amounts of such foods and beverages, sweeteners may soar to higher consumption levels. The long-range health effects from such escalation need careful evaluation. Do additional approved sweetening agents truly contribute to good health? Do they really meet special dietary needs? Or, do they merely further encourage poor dietary choices?




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Dr. Mercola's Comment:

Don't let these large companies fool you. There is no magic alternative to sugar when it comes to sweeteners. You simply can not have your cake and eat it too when it comes to this area. It is far too early to tell, as not enough people have consumed this product to observe large numbers of adverse effects.

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However, I have had a number of patients in our Wellness Center who have had some severe migraines and even seizures possibly from consuming this product.

My advice?

AVOID Sucralose.

I am fond of telling people that if something tastes sweet you probably should spit it out as it is not likely to be to good for you. This of course, is a humorous exaggeration, but for most people who struggle with chronic illness, it is likely to be a helpful guide.

PLEASE note this article is being written in 2000. This is one of the first comprehensive clear investigative reports and warnings on sucralose on the Internet.

Related Articles:


Sucralose (Splenda®) U.S. Product List

The Potential Dangers of Sucralose: Reader Testimonials

The Dangers of Chlorine and Issues With Sucralose

12 Questions You Need to Have Answered Before You Eat Splenda

Sources:

Food and Drug Administration "Final Rule " for Sucralose, 21 CFR Part 172, Docket No. 87F-0086.

Lord GH, Newberne PM. Renal mineralization -- a ubiquitous lesion in chronic rat studies. Food Chem Toxicol 1990 Jun;28:449-55.

Labare MP, Alexander M. Microbial cometabolism of sucralose, a chlorinated disaccharide, in environmental samples. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1994 Oct;42:173-8.

Hunter BT. Sucralose. Consumers' Research Magazine, Oct90, Vol. 73 Issue 10, p8, 2p.

Maudlin RK. FDA approves sucralose for expanded use. Modern Medicine, Oct99, Vol. 67 Issue 10, p57, 1/9p

Sucralose -- a new artificial sweetener. Medical Letter on Drugs & Therapeutics, 07/03/98, Vol. 40, Issue 1030, p67, 2p.

Q&A: Is newly FDA approved sweetener sucralose good for you? Executive Health's Good Health Report, Nov98, Vol. 35 Issue 2, p6, 1p, 1c.

Gain B. FDA approves J&J Sweetener. Chemical Week, 04/15/98, Vol. 160 Issue 14, p27, 1/4p.

Sucralose Toxicity Information Center

Splenda Product Web Site

Official Tate & Lyle Sucralose Web Site

Endurance News, Issue 26.


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Disclaimer: The entire contents of this website are based upon the opinions of Dr. Mercola, unless otherwise noted. Individual articles are based upon the opinions of the respective author, who retains copyright as marked. The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. It is intended as a sharing of knowledge and information from the research and experience of Dr. Mercola and his community. Dr. Mercola encourages you to make your own health care decisions based upon your research and in partnership with a qualified health care professional.

Dedicated
04-28-2004, 02:35 PM
Thanks ogar:)

AllUp
04-28-2004, 02:37 PM
If I recall, Aspartame was the sweetener people had problems with in rare cases.

Also thanks ogar, good read.

ogarchamplin
04-28-2004, 02:44 PM
If I recall, Aspartame was the sweetener people had problems with in rare cases.

Also thanks ogar, good read.

Yeah i get headaches from Aspartame

iLUDEd
04-30-2004, 10:36 AM
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