View Full Version : Things I've learned
06-30-2004, 09:44 AM
In an effort to hold onto useful information I'll be putting stuff in here from time to time (have removed it from my journal since it was taking up to much space).
Cardio AM or PM
To lose weight, cardio or weights?
Measuring bf, things about bf
Basics for a diet
How much water
Impact of food/air temperature on calories burned
Increasing 1-7 minute sport endurance
Journal of Applied Physiology (http://jap.physiology.org)
Exercises & Diet
06-30-2004, 09:45 AM
13 Ways to Naturally Boost Your Testosterone Levels (http://timinvermont.com/fitness/boosttes.htm)
The normal level of testosterone in your bloodstream is between 350 and 1,000 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dl). Like combable hair, those quantities silently start to wane around age 40. You lose about 1 percent a year -- a harmless decline in the short term, but a cause of obesity, brittle bones, muscle loss and impotence by the time you reach your 60s -- if you live that long. Testosterone levels in the low range (a blood serum score below 350 ng/dl) may increase your chances of dying of a heart attack.
It's not just an old man's problem, either. Men in their 30s and 40s also fall prey to low testosterone counts. It's a disorder called hypogonadism, and it can be caused by an undescended testicle, a testicular injury, a pituitary gland disorder or even prescription drugs. It usually goes undiagnosed until a man hits his doctor with a telltale complaint: "I can't get an erection."
"If you have reduced levels of sexual desire, have your testosterone level checked immediately," says Dr. Allen Seftel, a urologist at Case Western Reserve University Hospitals of Cleveland. You can replenish your testosterone stores with injections, gels, pills or patches, but these medical treatments are no panacea: Side effects include acne, high cholesterol, shrunken testicles and liver damage. Further, don't take supplements like DHEA or androstenedione to boost testosterone; they might increase your risks of prostate cancer and heart disease.
"For men with borderline testosterone scores, I advise them to try to raise their levels through exercise and weight loss before going on testosterone therapy," says Dr. Goldberg. And it might pay to start young. "Since your testosterone declines at a steady rate, it's conceivable that raising your hormone levels naturally in your 20s and 30s could help you maintain higher levels later on," he says. Either way, the reward can be a stronger physique and better bedroom sessions than you'd otherwise deserve. Below are 13 tips designed to get your juice up -- safely.
Get Rid of the Flopping Belly
Or you'll grow a pair of fetching breasts to complement it. Carrying excess body fat elevates your estrogen levels, and that may cause your testosterone levels to sink, says Joseph Zmuda, an epidemiologist at the University of Pittsburgh. Louie Anderson is proof enough of this. Two or three extra pounds won't cause this hormonal shift; it really occurs once you're 30 percent over your ideal body weight. "Unfortunately, that's pretty common now," says Dr. Dobs.
But Lose Only One Pound a Week
When you want to trim down quickly, you probably starve yourself while exercising like a madman. One of the many reasons this stops working in your 30s, when your natural testosterone levels start dropping, is pretty simple: Cutting your calorie intake by more than 15 percent makes your brain think you're starving, so it shuts down testosterone production to wait out the famine. "There's no need to reproduce if you're starving," explains Thomas Incledon of Human Performance Specialists in Plantation, Fla. Ironically, this dive in circulating testosterone stops you from burning body fat efficiently, so you're actually thwarting your hard efforts to melt that tire off your gut.
Skip the Atkins Fad
Research suggests that eating a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet can cramp your testosterone levels. High amounts of dietary protein in your blood can eventually lower the amount of testosterone produced in your testes, says Incledon, who observed this relationship in a Penn State study of 12 healthy, athletic men.
Your protein intake should be about 16 percent of your daily calories, Incledon says. So, if you're the average 170-pound man who eats 2,900 calories a day, you should eat about 140 grams of protein daily, which is about the amount in two chicken breasts and a 6-ounce can of tuna.
Have Morning Sex
German scientists found that simply having an erection causes your circulating testosterone to rise significantly -- and having one in the morning can goose your natural post-dawn testosterone surge. It's a sure bet you'll burn a little fat, too.
Stick With Tough Exercises
To beef up your testosterone levels, the bulk of your workout should involve "compound" weight-lifting exercises that train several large muscle groups, and not just one or two smaller muscles. For example, studies have shown that doing squats, bench presses or back rows increases testosterone more than doing biceps curls or triceps pushdowns, even though the effort may seem the same. This is why doing squats could help you build bigger biceps.
Make Nuts Your Midnight Snack
Nuts are good for your nuts. Research has found that men who ate diets rich in monounsaturated fat -- the kind found in peanuts -- had the highest testosterone levels. "It's not known why this occurs, but some scientists believe that monounsaturated fats have a direct effect on the testes," says Incledon. Nuts, olive oil, canola oil and peanut butter are good sources of monounsaturated fat.
Squeeze Out Five Repetitions per Set
Throwing around 5-pound dumbbells won't help you effect a rise in testosterone. Start off by using a heavy weight that you can lift only five times. That weight is about 85 percent of your one-repetition maximum. A Finnish study found that this workload produced the greatest boosts in testosterone.
Do Three Sets of Each Weight-Lifting Movement
Researchers at Penn State determined that this fosters greater increases in testosterone than just one or two sets. Rest a full minute between sets, so you can regain enough strength to continue lifting at least 70 percent of your one-rep maximum during the second and third sets.
Rest Harder Than You Work Out
If you overtrain -- meaning you don't allow your body to recuperate adequately between training sessions -- your circulating testosterone levels can plunge by as much as 40 percent, according to a study at the University of North Carolina. The symptoms of overtraining are hard to miss: irritability, insomnia, muscle shrinkage, joining the Reform Party. To avoid overtraining, make sure you sleep a full eight hours at night, and never stress the same muscles with weight-lifting movements two days in a row.
Drive Home Sober
To maintain a healthy testosterone count -- and titanium erections -- cut yourself off after three drinks. "Binge drinking will kill your testosterone levels," warns Incledon. Alcohol affects the endocrine system, causing your testes to stop producing the male hormone. That's one reason drinking often causes you to go limp at the moment of truth.
Have a Sandwich at 3 p.m.
As any sensible woman knows, the way to put hair on a man's chest is to fill his stomach. Your body needs a ready supply of calories to make testosterone, so regularly skipping meals or going for long stretches without eating can cause your levels of the hormone to plummet. Then again, that's probably the warden's plan.
Buy the Fried Tortilla Chips
If you want to raise your testosterone score, eat a diet that includes about 30 percent fat, and not much less. Your body needs dietary fat to produce testosterone, so eating like a vegetarian aerobics instructor will cause your testosterone levels to sink drastically. This is bad, unless you actually are a vegetarian aerobics instructor.
beastin-thanks! will have new ones up shortly!
Stop Surfing for Porn at 2 a.m.
Sleeping less than seven to eight hours a night can screw up your circadian rhythm. That's why it's no wonder your testosterone levels are higher in the morning after a good night's sleep. So if your work or social schedule keeps you stooped in perpetual jet lag, don't be surprised if you stop craving sex. At least that'll make it easier to stay out of bed.
levels of testosterone, the major male hormone, rise by about twenty per cent through the summer, reaching a peak in September.
The part of the body exposed to ultraviolet also made a difference. Some increase could be achieved whichever area of skin received the irradiation, but while exposing the back produced a doubling in hormones, exposing the skin of the genitals could cause the hormone level to triple.
Here is more info on cortisol/testosterone changes throughout the day
Effects of exercise on neuroendocrine secretions and glucose regulation at different times of day (http://ajpendo.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/274/6/E1040?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=cortisol+exercise&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1086644008124_5385&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=1)
This page has some nice pics diagraming morning, noon, night exercise vs rest in terms of cortisol, growth hormone and THG..
While reading up on this I found this chart which I find fasinating:
SOURCE: LNDON EVENING STNDARD - 29MARCH1999
7 - Best time to have sex. Body produces a surge of sex hormones and a rush of adrenaline. Men's testosterone levels have risen during sleep and reach a peak now.
7:30 to 9 - Best time to go to dentist - body releases a greater quantity of natural painkillers, endorphins through the night.
8 to 8:30 - Gentle stretching to ease into day.
8:30 to 9 - Metabolism works overtime first thing in the morning - best time to eat.
9:30 to 11:30 - Brain power and short-term memory at its best before noon - best time for mind-intensive activity.
2 pm - Best time for a cat-nap - and time for reflection....
2:30 to 3 - Long-term memory at its best. Brain power takes a second hit at lunch.
4 to 6 pm - Best time to exercize - reaction time and hand/eye coordination at its best. Muscle temperature and other physical parameters reach a peak in late afternoon so your body is ready to exercize. Most olympic records are broken in the late afternoon - very few are set before noon.
7 to 9 pm - Stress hormone cortisol plummet, brain begins to produce melatonin. Drop pressure drops. Best time for socialization.
10 to 11 pm - Another surge of sleep hormones (melatonin) are released, peaking at midnight. Heat rate, body temperature, stress hormones falls.
06-30-2004, 09:46 AM
Cardio AM or PM:
Here is some info:
Cortisol is termed catabolic as it has the opposite effect to testosterone, insulin and growth hormone in that it breaks down tissue.
Cortisol, which is released by the adrenal glands under conditions of high mental and physical stress and high temperature, is the body’s primary catabolic hormone.
The three main functions of cortisol are:
The reduction of protein synthesis.
The facilitation of protein to glucose.
The halting of tissue growth.
It is therefore essential that cortisol release is controlled if one is to facilitate muscle growth. As well as being released under conditions of stress and high temperature cortisol is also released first thing in the morning.
Morning aerobics have been thought to be effective for this very reason.
However this is misguided thinking because exercising on an empty stomach first thing in the morning has been shown to actually intensify cortisol’s effects thus resulting in further muscle loss, and consequently metabolic resistance to body fat loss.
The dangers of excess cortisol are:
Reduced growth hormone, and testosterone output.
Reduced muscle and increased abdominal fat.
Impaired memory and learning.
Reduced glucose utilization.
This thread has input from some of the veterans of this board, I'd quote them but the thread is 2 years old and I am not sure if their opinions are the same, but Tryska, Paul Stagg, PowerManDL, Maki Riddington, Galileo, Hermants, Stray, YatesNightBlade, ElP, Raniali, ShaoLin, Blood&Iron, ChickenDaddy, Pup and a few others contributed, all of whom are VERY well respected for their knowledge on this board.
I believe the end opinion based on a few studies is that HIIT performed in AM sessions would be ideal.
Exercising in the evening rather than some other time of day may boost levels of hormones important for energy metabolism, according to a new study.
Here is more great info on this subject:
AM Fat Burning (http://www.howtobefit.com/amfatburn.htm)
06-30-2004, 09:48 AM
To lose weight, cardio or weights?:
Influence of diet and exercise on skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue in men (http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/81/6/2445)
DO = Diet only
DA = Diet + aerobic exercise
DR = Diet + resistance training
shows VAT loss between the DA and DR groups was very close and the the DR group lost more SAT.
shows SAT mobilization is higher in the DR group compared to the DA group in abdominal regions and in fact the DR group lost more in the legs!!!
shows relative loss between DA/DR/DO groups, again, DR comes out on top.
Mobilization of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in response to energy restriction and exercise (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=7942575&dopt=Abstract)
These findings suggest that the combination of moderate energy restriction and either resistance or aerobic exercise induces significant reductions in VAT and SAT, with a preferential loss of VAT, and are thus effective means of reducing total and upper-body obesity in obese women.
Fat-free mass is maintained in women following a moderate diet and exercise program (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8531622&dopt=Abstract)
Results suggest that moderate levels of caloric restriction, aerobic cycle exercise, and/or resistance training are equally effective in maintaining FFM while encouraging body mass loss
Publishing their findings in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Japanese researchers have shown that dieting leads to a greater reduction in visceral fat — the fat that protects your internal organs . Exercise, on the other hand, has a greater impact on subcutaneous fat.
The women in the study took part in a 13-week program that combined exercise with a restricted-calorie diet. One group followed the diet, combined with 1-2 days per week of exercise. Group two made no change to their diet, but exercised 3-4 days each week.
Although both groups lost roughly the same amount of fat, the women who exercised for 3-4 days each week lost more subcutaneous fat than those who exercised only 1-2 days weekly.
In the group who exercised more frequently, 6 of every 10 pounds of fat lost came from subcutaneous fat.
In the group who exercised less frequently, less than 3 of every 10 pounds of fat lost came from subcutaneous fat.
When the results of both groups were analyzed, the researchers found a link between exercise frequency and the loss of subcutaneous fat. In other words, the more often you exercise, the more subcutaneous fat you'll lose.http://www.thefactsaboutfitness.com/research/sub.htm
06-30-2004, 09:48 AM
tanita makes some not so great scales and some great ones. I think their price range is from 7-5,000$
They are fairly consistant. I use a um0026 that I got for about 70$.
I measure AM, 5pm and late night and record the readings (cuz I like data) anyway, the readings tend to change by no more than .5% a day.
There are a lot of factors that will affect the scale:
when you woke up, how long you've been standing, your hydration levels, etc...
its an electrical impulse, and as such has its limitations. The human body fluctuates in hydration throughout the day, I know I tend to fluctuate by about 4 lbs per day. However the scale measures by impulse and can't tell where the water is, at night the water tends to pool around your torso, by day gravity drags it lower, so at night (after a full day of gravity) your tanita water weight measurements will be at the highest and bodyfat at the lowest.
the older scales only worked for one type of person, the newer ones take gender, height, age and heart rate into consideration to determine your measurements.
its infinitely easier and IMHO more reliable than calipers which rely greatly on positioning and pressure of the pinches which in my experience are impossible to do correctly by yourself thus skewing the numbers even further.
Bottom line is most people decry the tanita because it gives them a higher bf % which they think is rediculous:) we all like to think we are ultra lean! and if one thing is higher than the next it must be wrong!
Attached below is a comparison of pinch test equations....notice that in women the scale changes by 11% based on what equation you use and 8% in men.
Here is a description and some info on all the different ways to measure bf and the pro's and con's of each
The author seems more than qualified as a subject matter expert.
His recommendation is skinfold tests (assuming they are recorded) based on the fact that it can show distribution of fat and problem areas that might cause potential health risks.
edited for readability:
"As with all other methods that claim to estimate percentage of bodyfat, skinfold-caliper equations have yet to be validated against any reliable measure of true body fatness. As they're used today, skinfold equations only predict body density as estimated by underwater weighing--not in itself a very reliable estimate of percentage fat,However, because skinfolds can detect gain or loss of fat in the same individual over time, they're a useful gauge of how well a diet and exercise program is working."
Most skinfold research data were compiled using $400 Harpenden calipers accurate to within 0.2 mm, although more affordable brands like Lange, The Body Caliper and SlimGuide (in order of expense) are also acceptable. Avoid brands made of bendable plastic and learn the technique.
"Since skinfolds vary tremendously depending on where you take the measurement, it's important to be consistent and measure exactly the same spot each time. Even half an inch off can make a significant difference for suprailiac [waist] measurements."
Skinfold calipers measure fat only under the skin (subcutaneous fat), not deep fat such as that found within muscle. As a result, these equations must try to estimate total bodyfat based on measurements of surface fat alone. That gets complicated as you get older, when you tend to carry a greater proportion of your total fat deep within muscle and other tissues. As a result, a 25 mm skinfold sum (using the SlimGuide or Body Caliper method) can mean 16.8% total bodyfat if a woman is in her 20s, or it can mean 22.2% total bodyfat if she's in her 40s. To avoid underestimating total bodyfat in older women, use a skinfold equation that takes age into account.
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
Richard Pierson Jr., MD, professor of clinical medicine at St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University, New York, states: "BIA measures allow for height, weight, gender, and sometimes activity level and age to be written into the equation. These by themselves give a pretty good estimate of fatness. The question then becomes, `What does the BIA add?' With everything except the BIA, the error for predicting fat is about plus or minus 13%. With BIA, that's reduced to plus or minus 10% or 9%, at best.
Pierson, "I believe that measuring BIA serially would do much better than skinfolds to track short-term changes, since it takes many weeks/ months for skinfolds to change, while visceral fat (having more blood supply) will turn over faster and cannot be estimated by skinfolds." Besides, it's easier to use one of the BIA devices than to have someone conduct a skinfold test on you.
Uneven fat distribution (for example, hip fat vs. arm fat) may further hurt BIA accuracy, as handheld BIA devices only assess the upper body, BIA scales only assess the legs and neither looks at core bodyfat. Additionally, the fitter you are, the less accurate the test. Some BIA devices have an "athlete" setting that helps overcome this problem; without it, results can be misleading.
Skinfold measures give a better idea of fat distribution (hips vs. triceps, and so on) and of fat under the skin, which is the most noticeable kind. As with other methods, Pierson and Martin agree that BIA isn't reliable for determining actual percentage of bodyfat or who is fatter than whom, but it can be used to check for changes over time in the same group of people. To make the most of your BIA device, avoid dehydration and follow these guidelines before the test:
# Abstain from eating and drinking for four hours
# Avoid exercising for 12 hours before
# Urinate completely before testing
# Do not drink alcohol within 48 hours.
The estimation results obtained from skin fold measurements vary widely from technician to technician. The "art" of skin fold measurements requires the technician to properly identify a site measurement and pinch the skin gathering only the fat store and no other tissue. The error of estimate between technicians has been reported to be ±8%. (Smith, 1977)
A review of the literature indicates that bioimpedance units which utilize these linear regression equations tend to be somewhat valid for a "normal" population, but under-predict body fat for obese subjects and over-predict body fat of lean subjects. The standard errors of estimate for these equations are ±5% to ±6.4% in normal populations when compared to the hydrostatic tank. (Jackson et al 1988) (Segal et al 1988)
Things about bodyfat:
plug ur numbers in these calculators, they'll spit out an approximate maintenance level for u based on the Harris-Benedict model for BMR, and where they came up with the activity factors is anyones guess....
This link has 4 different BMR calculators based on different studies.
The HB one tends to slightly overestimate
which u'll then need to take activity into account for
Sedentary - little or no exercise BMR X 1.2
Lightly Active (exercise/sports: 1-3 days/week) BMR X 1.375
Moderately Active (exercise/sports 3-5 days/week) BMR X 1.55
Very Active = BMR X 1.725 (exercise/sports 6-7 days/week) BMR X 1.725
Extra Active (daily exercise/sports & physical job or 2X day training) BMR X 1.9
@100lbs = 20lbs of fat/80lbs of LBM
@150lbs = 30lbs of fat/120lbs of LBM
@175lbs = 35lbs of fat/140lbs of LBM
@200lbs = 40lbs of fat/160lbs of LBM
and lets say you want to be 10% bf:
@100lbs = 10lbs of fat/90lbs of LBM, so you need to lose 10lbs of fat
@150lbs = 15lbs of fat/135lbs of LBM, so you need to lose 15lbs of fat
@175lbs = 17.5lbs of fat/157.5lbs of LBM, so you need to lose 17.5lbs of fat
@200lbs = 20lbs of fat/180lbs of LBM, so you need to lose 20lbs of fat
IMHO a weight loss of .75-2lbs per week is ideal, so! fat loss would take-
10lbs: 5-13 weeks
15lbs: 7-20 weeks
20lbs: 10-26 weeks
numbers are very rough and I know they aren't perfect...but I hope that helps put a little perspective into timelines
06-30-2004, 09:49 AM
Basics for a diet:
Helpful tips to stick to a diet
1. prepare your own meals (eat out as infrequently as possible)
2. measure every portion (or weigh)
3. write down what/how much you eat (fitday.com, dietorganizer.com)
4. don't buy anything at the grocery store that doesn't fit your diet
5. at the end of the week check your averages and adjust your diet
6. for ease of cooking/tracking try to avoid variety and cook in bulk
protein: powders, eggs, chicken/turkey, fish
carbs: vegetables, oats
fats: olive, fish, flax
diet for a bodybuilder article
12 Week Guide to becoming Lean " Diet " (http://www.abcbodybuilding.com/magazine/fatlossdiet.htm)
diet for someone on a cut
Nutrition & Supplementation (http://www.abcbodybuilding.com/magazine/howtoanalysizeyourself2.htm)
Post Exercise Nutrition to Maximize the Training Effect (http://www.thinkmuscle.com/articles/haycock/postexercise.htm)
Pre/During/Post Workout Nutrition (http://www.avantlabs.com/page.php?pageID=66&pf=1&noupdate=1)
Carbs: To make the best possible blend, it is recommended that the carbohydrates be a 50/50 blend of dextrose (glucose) and maltodextrin
Protein: Which protein to use is a little more complicated. As in the case of carbohydrates, we want to use the fastest absorbing protein possible. Hydrolyzed whey protein is one of the most quickly absorbed due to an enzymatic production method that leaves the amino acids open for use.
06-30-2004, 09:49 AM
~3g of EPA/DHA (combined amount), which usually equals about 10g per day, assuming the caps are 30% EPA/DHA
Fish oil link to depression (http://www.oilofpisces.com/depression.html)
Benefits of Fish Oil (http://www.caromont.org/112.cfm)
fish oil supplies EPA/DHA directly to the body. Flaxseed oil contains ALA which has to be converted to EPA/DHA, which is not an effecient process.
300 fish oil caps (180 EPA/120 DHA) for ~$8 at Sam's Club
300count 1000mg(EPA300/DHA200) for ~$6 Kirkland Caps at Costco (http://www.costco.com/frameset.asp?trg=product.asp&catid=589&subid=770&hierid=869&prdid=20007&log=)
Light, air and heat destroy EFAs, so processing and packaging methods are extremely important. Ideally, when buying oils, choose mechanically processed oils in opaque glass containers.
Essential Fatty Acid oils go off very quickly, so should be kept away from light, heat and air. Keep in the fridge once opened (1 week). They are destroyed by commercial processing, so always buy FRESH COLD PRESSED.
Omega 6 and Omega 3 essential fatty acids are best consumed in a ratio of about 3:1 - three omega 6 for one omega 3.
Most Western diets range between 10 and 20 to 1 in favor of omega 6, which is not good for health. We eat too much omega 6 fat and not enough omega 3 fat.
Food Sources of Omega-6 Essential Fatty Acids
Safflower oil - the richest natural source
Hemp oil (best balance of omega 6:3)
Evening Primrose oil
Food Sources of Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids
Flax oil (linseed oil) - the richest natural source
Hemp oil (best balance of omega 6:3)
Soybean oil (richer in omega 6)
Walnut oil (richer in omega 6)
common recommended dose is ~2 tablespoons per day (14g)
Lignans found in the seed (not the oil) have been found to decrease risk of breast cancer
Flax see oil has been shown to increase growth of protstate cancer by 300%
Your metabolism increases when you lower saturated fat intake
The effect of fat composition of the diet on energy metabolism. (http://charm.cs.uiuc.edu/users/jyelon/lowcarb.med/topic3.html)
here are some highlights...I urge you to read the entire article though
Most scientists state that this fat is not essential because we can make it from other fats. That may be correct up to a point. The human body does need saturated fats because they protect your organs and joints, while serving as an energy source.
The "establishment" does not recommend the intake of saturated fats because they supposedly have a negative affect on your heart function and cholesterol levels. Examples of food containing saturated fats are egg yolks, red meat, butter, sour cream, pork, cream cheese, and oils including olive oil (14%).
They serve as messengers and play an important role in muscle building. One omega 3 polyunsaturated fat is alpha-linolenic acid and it is an essential fatty acid.
One omega 6 polyunsaturated fat is another essential fatty acid (alpha linoleic acid). The essential fatty acid substructures that sound like measures of gas mileage called EPA and DHA are called marine oils and stand for eicosapapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Examples of polyunsaturated fats include corn oil, canola oil, flaxseed oil, cod liver oil and salmon.
Don't use oils high in polyunsaturated fats to cook because they will become hydrogenated and unstable when heated, i.e. safflower, canola, flax or corn.
These fats are important in building muscle and losing fat. The most important source in this group is olive oil and extra virgin oil (canned extra virgin oil from Spain or Italy is the best source). Nuts like cashews/macadamia also are in this category.
You should not consume these fats, period.
Examples include almost all commercial crackers, cookies and cakes, margarine, Crisco shortening and things like "innocent" artificial coffee creamers.
What is the optimal ratio of varying fats for health? My research is not finished so I am not sure yet, but if I had to play Jimmy the Greek, I would say 2:3:1 of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated to saturated fats.
Studies done with rats show that a high consumption of polyunsaturated fats will increase the size of the fat cells. Corn oil, specifically, and oils high in Omega 6 or other polyunsaturated oils can also increase fat size. Saturated fats increase the size and the volume or number of the fat cells, while monounsaturated don't do anything to the size of the fat cells.
at the bottom of this link (below) is a great chart that shows the ratio of omega6:omega3 in common foods
good health — a diet that contains less than 30% of the fat coming from saturates (less than 30g of saturates per 100g fat) and 70% coming from polyunsaturates. Some of my colleagues even suggest that 10% of the fat coming from saturates (10g of saturates per 100g of fat) and 90% of the fat coming from polyunsaturates may be even better for optimal health.
06-30-2004, 09:50 AM
Whey Protein Shootout (http://www.bodybuildingforyou.com/protein/whey-protein-compare-1.htm)
WPC = whey protein concentrate (these are all bulk order of 20-100 pounds)
1 pound blackstar.com = 344.73g protein = $2.90
1 pound nutrabio.com = 383.82 g protein = $3.60
1 pound bulkfoods.com = 362.88 g protein = $3.73
1 pound proteinfactory.com = 347.76 g protein = $3.82
WPC+Isolate blend(these are in smaller orders of 1-20lbs)
1 pound allthewhey.com = 351.38 g protein = $3.80
pure Isolate (these are in smaller orders of 1-20lbs)
1 pound bulkfoods.com = 408.24 g protein = $6.32
1 pound allthewhey.com = 400g protein = $6.50
1 pound CFM Whey Isolate proteinfactory.com = 408.24 g protein = $8.85
1 pound CFM Whey Isolate blackstar.com = 478.5 g protein (there is a typo on website by the way zepplin) = $9.75
1 pound Ion Exchange whey Isolate proteinfactory.com = 420 g protein = $9.34
1 pound iso-chill whey proteinfactory.com = 423.36 g protein = $6.50
1 pound milk protein isolate proteinfactory.com = 405g protein = $5.99
1 pound milk protein isolate blackstar.com (MPI 90)= 350g protein = $6.50
1 pound proLab whey Isolate = 368g protein = $17.5
1 pound EAS Precision Protein = 360g protein = $15.00
1 pound AST VP2 Whey Isolate = 336g protein = $17.00
1 pound Zero Carb Isopure = 350g protein = $11.66
1) Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS)
2) Protein/Efficiency Ratio(PER)
3) Biological Value (BV)
4) Protein Digestibility %(PD)
WPC_____________________ 1.00___ 3.6___ 104___ 95
Whole Egg________________ 1.00___ 3.8___ 100___ 98
Casein____________________ 1.00___ 2.9___ 77___ 99
Soy Protein Concentrate_____ 0.99___ 2.2___ 74___ 95
Beef______________________ 0.92___ 2.9___ 80___ 98
Wheat Gluten______________ 0.25___ 0.34___ 54___ 91
Protein Myths (http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/hst3.htm)
How Protein Ratings (BV...) are calculated (http://www.musclemonthly.com/articles/0109/010901-haycock-howz-it-work.htm)
BV (Biological Value). This is quite an old measure, and using this different flavours of whey protein (concentrates and isolates) can score well over 100, which at one time was the highest possible score for a protein! Basically what BV tells us is the percentage of protein that your body has absorbed from the amount of protein you ingested (% of absorbed Nitrogen retained in the body). This gives an indication of how much of the protein that is consumed actually remains within the body to promote protein synthesis.
Secondly we have NPU (Net Protein Utilisation). NPU, is the ratio of amino acids converted in to proteins, compared to the ratio of amino acids supplied throughout the day. NPU is a useful index for evaluating both digestive and metabolic protein utilization, this figure is somewhat affected by the salvage of essential amino acids within the body, but is profoundly affected by the level of limiting amino acids within the food that you have ingested. What I mean by limiting amino acid is, any amino acid which is classed as an essential amino acid, i.e. one that cannot be manufactured in the body from scratch.
Thirdly we have PER (Protein Efficiency Ratio), this has now been replaced by a more effective measure called PDCAAS (Protein Digestibility Amino Acid Score).
PDCAAS was developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to compare the quality of different proteins based on amino acid requirements necessary for humans. A protein receives the highest value (1.0) by containing all the essential amino acids required by our bodies. The idea is that all the protein needs of your body will be met, if your diet provides you with enough of the essential amino acids. It first scores a protein based on its amino acid content and then adjusts it to account for the food's digestibility. Corrections for digestibility of protein are applied to give a protein-quality rating such that's much closer to reality for human metabolism.
The PDCAAS is based on the amino acid needs of children ages 2-5, since this is the group that needs the greatest amount of amino acid consumption. By using a 2-5 year old child's needs as a base, it is assured to exceed the amino acid needs of everyone since your needs decrease as you get older
The best protein powders will have a variety of protein sources. This ensures that you get a wider amino acid spectrum, and hence more complete proteins, it also helps supply your body with a steady supply of aminos, compared to most whey proteins that give you a massive influx of aminos (known as anabolic proteins) most of which will be oxidised and not used in protein synthesis. Hence combining whey protein (or any other proteins for that matter) with other proteins, such as egg white and micellular caseins, you are creating a designer protein far superior to any one single protein source.
Egg Protein: Shelled egg vs liquid vs powder
2$ = 1 carton acme eggs = 240/0/2/48 (cal/fat/carbs/pro)
1.5$ = 1 dozen lg eggs (whites only); each white = 198/0/4.1/42
1.5$ = 1 dozen lg eggs (whole); each egg = 894/60.1/7.3/74.9
7$lb = Egg White Protein = 1lb (15 servings) = 120/0/2/24 (protein factory.com)
Egg White Protein is extracted from pure egg whites then processed into powder form. It yields a higher protein ratio than liquid egg whites. Egg Whites provide an excellent source of amino acids and are high in the sulfur producing amino acid which is crucial in anabolic hormone production. Has a PER of 3.9 and a biological value of 88.
Egg Protein still remains a favorite choice of protein for many bodybuilders. Egg protein possess a high biological and PER value, making it a good choice for muscle mass gains. The amino acid level is not as high as the whey's, but egg beats out soy and caseinate for usability. Use egg protein with a combination of whey concentrate for a good economical protein source.
(info obtained from protein factory.com)
Imported from Switzerland, the Micellar Casein is a milk protein obtained through a proprietary process that guarantees the total wholesomeness of native micellar caseins. Micellar casein has excellent organoleptic and functional properties. It is suitable for various nutritional applications due to its great amino acid profile, mineral profile and due to the nutritional properties of its byproducts. It is most appropriate for body building formulas due to its anti-catabolic properties. Micellar casein to total protein ration of 92%.
Micellar Casein should be used by anyone wishing to seek out the protein sub-fractions that micellar possesses due to its gentle manufacturing process. These subfractions some people claim to boost certain growth factors and have extra health benefits. Micellar Casein will still provide someone with a slow digestion which will cause the anti-catabolic effect similar to calcium caseinate. A smart combination of protein would be 50% CFM, 50% Micellar casein. This would be the perfect, fast/slow digesting protein, high in protein subfractions. Micellar casein does not mix with a spoon. One must use a shaker cup or a blender. Use at least 35% Micellar Casein to give you this effect.
General Casein info:
Casein is the most commonly found protein in weight gain powders and meal replacement powders manufactured by supplement companies, but the least mentioned. Caseinate provides a good ratio of tyrosine and tryptophan amino's which increase brain neurotransmitters, which in turn can give one a boost.
Due to its delayed digestive properties, caseinate has a prolonged effect on the level of amino acids in the body. Unlike whey (which gives a quick boost in amino's) caseinate provides a steady "flow" hours after supplementation. Thus, this leads to an anti-catabolic effect. Caseinate is a great protein to supplement with right before bed or if one knows they will not be eating a high protein meal during the day. The recommended dosage for this effect is at least 40 grams of caseinate in a serving. Yielding a high percentage of protein. Caseinate can be used to reach daily protein requirements.
Whew VS. Casein
There are basically two major proteins in the bodybuilder's arsenal. Those being casein (slow) and whey (fast). The purpose of this article series is to give you an in-depth look at the properties of each of these proteins, explain what it all means and why it is important to you. And, Finally, to provide a systematic way to apply it all.
So you've got a choice. Casein or whey? fast or slow? Some people swear by one or the other and would have you believe that one of them is in fact superior.
Well, I am sorry to say that those people are wrong. They either do not understand the literature, have a poor sense of critical application or just want to make an impact by taking a stand. Which ever it may be, these people have misled you. And I can assure you that their path is nothing but a downward spiral to minimal results.
To truly get the most from your protein supplementation you will need to utilize both types of protein in your repertoire of supplements. Let's expand on whey a little bit first. I like to start with whey because it is better known and many have some background understanding of it.
The Facts Whey
Whey is a by-product of cheese production. When cheese is made, a thin liquid is left over. That liquid is whey and it is less than 1% protein. It is concentrated and dried, and you have a protein powder. Whey protein is considered a "Fast Acting" protein. But what, exactly, is meant by 'Fast'?
Fast refers to the amount of time it takes to be fully metabolized. More specifically, the time it takes for it to be digested (if needed), absorbed into the blood, taken up by a bodily tissue and complete one of many metabolic fates. The two dominant pathways here are the creation of a new protein from the individual amino acids or oxidation into urea and possibly glucose.
Urea is the major component of urine, while glucose is the humans basic unit of carbohydrate. With whey protein, it will take only 20 minutes before almost all of what you have consumed is coursing through your veins. Somewhere between 20-40 minutes, the level of amino acids in your blood has reached its high point. With in the hour it will have gone through the various metabolic processes, either protein synthesis, or oxidation. 11,12,13,14
This is a good thing! Muscle growth is dependant on the balance between protein synthesis and breakdown 18. If the synthesis of new muscle protein is greater than the breakdown of muscle protein, net gains in muscle mass are seen.
So with whey protein, it will take only 40 minutes for blood levels of amino acids and protein synthesis to reach a peak, and in about an hour they will come back to normal after a single feeding of protein. 5,14 This is amazingly fast in comparison to its counter part casein or even whole food.
Casein is considered a "Slow" protein. When you consume casein, you will reach a peak in blood amino acids and protein synthesis between 3 to 4 hours. 5,12
However, This 'peak' does not even come close to that of whey. On a scale of 1-10 with 10 being the highest or fastest, Whey would be a 10. Casein would come in with a meager rating of 2.
But, here is the kicker. That is not a bad thing! This, too, is a good thing. Casein dramatically slows the rate of protein breakdown. Remember, Muscle growth is dependant on the balance of protein synthesis and breakdown.
So as we can see here, relying on one or the other, and debating which is superior is futile in the hopes to gain the most benefits from them. To tip the scale in your favor, you need to increase protein synthesis and slow down muscle breakdown. You would be a fool to write one off.
Don't Take It All At Once
I know what you are thinking, "Why not just mix them together and get the best of both worlds?" Well, I am one step ahead of you. Casein has a unique property, in that is coagulates in the stomach. 12 This causes other proteins to be digested and absorbed much more slowly.
Have you ever tried to run through a vat of tar? It isn't easy by any means. You would be moving very slowly. Casein does the same thing to whey, and other proteins for that matter. Think of it as a sort of binding gel. This simple little fact would nullify the biggest and most important attribute of whey. That is its ability to flood your system quickly with amino acid and stimulate protein synthesis.
Now before you ask, let me stop you. I already know what you are thinking. Perhaps it would be best to just slam whey protein drinks all day to keep your system swimming in amino acids, right? Wrong! It may seem counter intuitive, but it would not keep protein synthesis rates up. 2 Just having constantly high levels of amino acids or merely having a positive protein balance doesn't stimulate protein synthesis 2,5,11 and doesn't lead to increases in muscle mass. 18
Then what does, you ask? All evidence point to the same thing time and time again. It is the acute and large increase in the amount of amino acids in the blood that causes protein synthesis rates to increase. 2,5,11,20,15,13 If you were to tap a vein with an IV to crank blood levels of amino acids up and keep them there, we would see a dramatic increase in protein synthesis as well as a decrease in protein breakdown. 11,2
However, right around two hours, synthesis rates will level off and return to normal despite the abnormally high levels of amino acids. 2 What is even more interesting is that even if amino acid levels are already very high and protein synthesis is dropping, I can consume more amino acids and further stimulate an increase in synthesis rates. 11
"How To" Manual
So here is the take how message. It is not about just shoveling down 4,000 calories 7 or X-amount of protein to keep your blood saturated with amino acids at all times. It is the about presenting your body with sudden change and increase of amino acids that stimulates protein synthesis rates. 2,5,11,20,15,13,9 This is why it is important to understand the differences between the various types of protein supplements.
When products start totting how much of a certain amino acid they have added or that they have a better amino acid profile, just skip it. It doesn't matter. 5 The amino acid profile becomes important when you are comparing different protein sources. And since both casein and whey are derived from milk, they have essentially the same amino acid profile.
You should be concerned with the main source of protein so that you know what that product will do for you. Will it stimulate protein synthesis? Or will it slow protein breakdown?
Finding The Middle Ground
Make no mistake about it, high protein diet are a requirement for packing on high quality muscle mass. 1,9,13,15,16,19 But you need to find that middle ground. As we have covered, if you consume so much that you have chronically high levels of amino acids in your blood, much of the protein you consume will go straight down the toilet. Literally! 1,2,5,11,17 But don't let people sell you on the myth that your body can only handle so many grams of protein at one time.
About 50% of what you consume is incorporated in to muscle tissue one way or another. 20% is incorporated into other body proteins and the remaining is oxidized. 11,5,1 A large majority of the 30% is a class of amino acids called Non-Essential Amino Acids. 17 And this breakdown of metabolic fates is ay just about any protein intake at any "one time".
On the other hand, if you play it too safe, you will short circuit the muscle building mechanisms and the balance will shift towards muscle breakdown. 4,11,18,16,19 So the next time that someone tells you that they won't be happy until they can walk around with an IV drip of amino acids tapped into their arm, you can tell them they are just wasting their time. Not only that, but you will understand why!
Precision Protein Supplementation
Alright, so we now have all of this information swimming around in our heads. What do we do with it? Let's put it together into a plan. We know that wee need to increase protein synthesis and reduce protein breakdown. We know that whey is the most effective product to stimulate protein synthesis, and we know that casein is the most effective product to reduce protein breakdown. We can't use them together because casein will nullify whey's primary mode of action.
However, we have one more weapon in the arsenal that we can use. And that is our good friend, food. In general, whole food proteins are digested very slowly. That means they will cause a mild and constant stream of amino acids into the blood, much like casein. However, most whole foods do not coagulate in the stomach and do not slow the digestion of other proteins.
So the first step in the plan is to forget what you think you know about supplement timing. It is ok to consume whey protein at times during the day other than before or after a work out. And honestly, you should.
Consume a whey protein drink shortly after a whole food meal.
By doing so, you will have created an environment very conductive to muscle growth. By consuming that whole food meal you will have suppressed the rate of muscle breakdown. Firstly, by starting a slow cascade of amino acids through your system.
Secondly, provided your meal had some kind of carbohydrates, you will have stimulated the release of insulin which in it self can slow the rate of muscle breakdown. 11,5,3,8,14
Insulin is also the hormone that governs protein synthesis rate. By elevating the release of insulin before the consumption of a whey protein drink, you have effectively set the stage for a serious anabolic reaction. 14,10,11 There is a slight delay from the time you digest carbohydrates and the time that insulin levels peak. Because of the fact that whey is absorbed so quickly, it is possible that the peaks between amino acids and insulin with not coincide resulting in a less than optimal response. 11,14
Once the whey protein has been completely assimilated, amino acid levels will drop. However, they will not return to normal, because the "Amino Acid Cascade" that you stared with the whole food meal is still streaming. It's a beautiful sight, isn't it? This little step has effectively stimulated protein synthesis as well as slowing protein breakdown.
Check out our whey protein recommendations here.
Consume casein based meal with in the next 3 hours.
That means before three hours has elapsed. Two hours would be an even safer bet. We want the levels of amino acids in our blood to drop a bit so we can create a dramatic increase again. The degree of protein synthesis is directly related to the degree of change in the levels of amino acids. By consuming a casein based meal here we will allow for that drop while keeping amino acid levels above normal. This keeps the rate of protein breakdown to a minimum. Do you feel the scales tipping yet?
Examples of good casein based protein products are Molecular Sustained Protein and Xtreme Formulations Ultra Peptide,
Repeat! That's all there is to it.
Alternate between a whole food meal with a whey protein chaser, and follow that up with a casein based meal. Now I know this sounds expensive so you can modify it. You may want to reduce the size of the whey protein drink. But remember, the degree of protein synthesis is dependant on the degree of the increase in the levels of amino acids in the blood. 2,5,11,20,15,13
So take caution when you are feeling cheap. It would not make sense to cut your servings and not have a very good response from it. You could also have just a whole food meal instead of a casein based one. You would essentially get the same effect.
However, many meal replacement products on the market today have a far better nutritional profile than anyone of us could every pull off in the kitchen. I highly recommend two a day, making sure to have one just prior to bed.
Well there you have it, a three pronged attack. Precision Protein Supplementation. You know have the tools and knowledge to strategically create an environment that is highly conductive to not only increasing lean muscle mass, but preserving it as well. You will be surprised how effective this little strategy is during times of low calorie dieting.
So, in summary, casein is a "slow" protein that is classified as anti-catabolic. That means that it prevent excessive protein breakdown. Whey protein is a "fast" protein that is classified as anabolic. Meaning that is stimulates protein synthesis, but does not inhibit catabolism. 5,12,2
We can't do both at the same time, but we can mimic the effect by manipulating our dietary intake. And finally, it is the rapid increase of amino acids that results in increases in protein synthesis.
Whey vs. Casein: Hyperaminoacidemia: the Anabolic Edge (http://proteinfactory.com/store/article_info.php?cArticlePath=2&articles_id=25)
Whey and casein have two radically different but complementary muscle-building properties.
A recently published French study compared those properties and the results showed that oral intake of 30 grams of whey protein very rapidly increased the level of amino acids in the blood in healthy young subjects. Consequently, anabolism was boosted by 68 percent.
Unfortunately whey’s muscle-building potential is transient-the paired and important rise in blood amino acid level is followed by a quick fall-and the results also showed no significance anti-catabolic effects.
On the other hand, 30 grams of casein resulted in a delayed but long-lasting elevation of amino acid levels in the blood, while the anabolic boosting effect were 31 percent milder than those of whey. In fact, casein’s long-lasting, anti-catabolic effect was its main advantage.
Since whey and casein are very different, you should use whey whenever you want a strong and rapid boost of anabolism. It’s a superior protein to eat first thing in the morning and immediately after training. Casein is the best choice whenever you need long lasting anti-catabolic protection: for example at night.
Hyperaminoacidemia occurs when blood amino levels are greatly increased, and Hypoaminoacidemia occurs when they are low. The key point for bodybuilders is that a Hyperaminoacidemia induced by an amino acid intake automatically triggers anabolism. Scientists have discovered that there are thresholds of amino acids in the blood: When you get past a certain level of elevation anabolism is triggered. As you can imagine, its no that easy to reach the threshold.
As stated above, when a meal that’s is rich in protein s is unlikely to induce a significant Hyperaminoacidemia. Proteins from foods are slow to digest, so their arrival in the blood is sustained but very slow, and consequently, the amino acid level in the blood rises slowly. Once is slightly elevated organs such as the liver remove those aminos from the blood. As they enter the blood slowly, the liver has no trouble keeping up. So the rise in blood amino acids is never as high as bodybuilders might wish. In contrast, the amino acids infusions given by scientists bypass the digestive track, and the level. Of blood amino acids increases quickly, which overwhelms the liver’s ability to extract amino acids from the blood, creating a condition of Hyperaminoacidemia.
The arrival of predigested whey protein was a big breakthrough for the bodybuilding community, as it has the amazing property of inducing a quick sharp elevation of the amino acid level in the blood. In other words, it can trigger the strongest Hyperaminoacidemia possible.
By almost bypassing digestion, whey protein overwhelms the liver capacity for extracting amino acids from the blood. It affects your body in a pharmacological way that only amino acid infusion can duplicate.
That is not possible with casein. Its is slow digestion only products a physiological Hyperaminoacidemia, which means the amino acid level is high but within normal limits.
Meals rich in protein wont induce a pharmacological Hyperaminoacidemia, either as the digestion of protein is even slower than what occurs with casein because of the fibers, fats and other elements that delay digestion.
As the amount of whey you eat at a given time is limited, the fast and powerful arrival of amino acids is short-lived. When new amino acids stop arriving in the blood, the organs that extract them stop being overwhelmed and the blood levels of amino acids are brought back to normal. When that happens, the powerful effects of whey vanish. Anabolism falls and catabolism dominates again.
Casein does not produce such a rise and fall in blood amino acid levels due to its timed-release action. The blood level of amino acid s elevates slightly but for a long period. Scientists have shown that a small elevation of blood amino acids greatly reduces catabolism. You could get a long-lasting anti-catabolic effect like that with whey if, instead of absorbing 30 grams at once, you took 10 grams every hour. You would not get any pharmacological Hyperaminoacidemia, but the constant arrival of small amounts of amino acids would reduce catabolism.
By the same token, if the researchers in the French study had used 60 grams of casein instead of 30, its more likely that the subjects blood amino levels would have reached the critical threshold at some point. In that case casein, after a delay, would have first reduced catabolism, and then, when the peak of blood amino acids had been reached, it would have triggered anabolism. After that peak the casein would have recovered its mainly anti-catabolic function and stopped being significantly anabolic.
There are three points to remember from this study.
Whatever the dose is, amino acid derived from whey will always reach the blood before the amino acids derived from casein.
The long-lasting anti-catabolic effect of casein can be duplicated by frequent ingestion of small amounts of whey. Of course its unlikely that you’re going to wake up every hours during the night to have your whey drink, so whey proteins are not’t practical if you’re looking for a prolong anti-catabolic effect.
In order to get a strong anabolic action from casein, you need a far higher dose of it than whey to get the same effect-and casein’s effect take a lot longer to kick in than whey’s effects.
In one study, five subjects who consumed diets consisting of 0.8 g/kg of body weight per day of protein and adequate calorie intake experienced decreased muscle cell mass over six weeks of strength training. With continued training and an increase in protein intake to 1.6 g/kg, cell mass increased. A nitrogen balance study of bodybuilders demonstrated an increased protein need relative to controls and estimated the RDA for bodybuilders to be 1.7 g/kg total.
In another study, impressive strength gains of 5% and size of 6% were observed over several months of strength training in world-class weight lifters when they increased their dietary protein from 1.8 to 3.5 g/kg of body weight per day. The protein intakes that seemingly produced substantial gains in muscle strength and size in the world-class lifters and bodybuilders are greater than the increased needs suggested by most of the studies utilizing the nitrogen balance technique.
this may mean that, although a positive nitrogen balance can be maintained during a strength training program with a protein intake equal to or slightly above the RDA (0.8-1.2 g/kg), higher intakes are necessary to generate optimal gains in muscle size and strength.
Some preliminary evidence of this possibility exists from a study which found greater nitrogen retention (estimated from dietary nitrogen minus urinary nitrogen) and greater gains in lean mass over four weeks of strength training when subjects consumed 2.4 g/kg of body weight per day compared to the RDA 's 0.8 g/kg.
Together, these studies suggest that a protein intake in excess of the current RDA will enhance the gains in muscle strength and size induced by a strength program. Most bodybuilders today are not taking in enough protein needed for muscle growth.http://www.bodyandfitness.com/Information/Bodybuilding/protein.htm
lbs x .454 = kg
so at 190lbs, 86kg, so 3.5g per kg would be about 301g of protein
06-30-2004, 09:50 AM
"As a general rule, on a bulk-up plan the amount of carbs to consume following a hardcore weight training session is five grams of simple carbohydrates for every ten pounds of lean body mass (LBM). This would mean a body builder with 200lbs. of LBM would consume 100 grams of high-glycemic simple carbohydrates post-training."
"On a cutting phase I recommend consuming 2.5 grams of carbs per ten pounds of lean body mass. The goal here is to consume just enough to suppress cortisol and increase growth hormone levels and to get out of our catabolic state. During a time when you are restricting calories, the last thing you want is to be catabolic. I also recommend consuming an equal amount of grams of protein as you did grams of simple carbohydrates."
maltodextrin for slow energy release. This combination of carbohydrates ensures energy levels are sustained over prolonged periods of time.
Maltodextrin has the ability to replace glycogen stores quickly and spare amino acid catabolism giving you energy over a sustained period of time
dextrose is required to create the quickest and highest insulin spike for maximum glycogen uptake by muscle cells
Maltodextrins are easily digestible carbohydrates made from natural corn starch. The starch is cooked, and then acid and/or enzymes are used to break the starch into smaller polymers (a process similar to that used by the body to digest carbohydrate). Maltodextrins are generally sold as dried powders. Maltodextrins are polymers of dextrose (sometimes labeled "glucose polymers"). Maltodextrins do not contain significant quantities of protein, fat or fiber. Maltodextrins are not produced from and do not contain malt products. Corn-based maltodextrins are safe for patients with celiac disease since they do not contain proteins from wheat, barley, oats or rye. Maltodextrins are not known to contain MSG. Diabetics should follow the advice of their physicians. Maltodextrin’s glycemic index should be considered metabolically equivalent to glucose (dextrose).
A complex carb derived from corn starch that is used in many MRP's.Instead of containing mostly disaccarides like most complex carbs, maltodextrin contains mostly Tetrasaccarides or higher.Pure maltodextrin also contains small amounts of dextrose and sugar.
Translocation of GLUT4 can also occur due to muscular contractions (2). So, weight lifting alone increases muscular insulin sensitivity - called insulin independent glucose uptake. Because of this fact, this time is ideal to take advantage of the nutrient partitioning (basically means where the nutrients go) effects of training. So, ideally we’re looking at a quick digesting carbohydrate to replenish the glycogen used while training and a quicker digesting protein to provide amino acids due to the increased protein synthesis that comes after training (for up to 36 hours (3)). The quickest digesting carbohydrate, glucose - also known as dextrose or corn sugar or even grape sugar - is probably the best idea.
Maltodextrin is also a good available source. It is known as a ‘complex carbohydrate’, purely on the grounds that it is a glucose polymer consisting of about 3-8 molecules. It is therefore too long to be classed as ‘simple’, and since there is no mid-classification, complex it is. This doesn’t stop it from digesting very quickly and doing the same job to insulin that glucose does. Maltodextrin is also a carbohydrate exploited by supplement companies for this very reason. They can claim it is a complex carb and it’s great in their MRPs. In all truth, it is the guar gum that they put in these products that slow digestion, not the maltodextrin. Any other time of day, just like glucose, it is a poor choice.
It is usually recommended to make a 50/50 mix of the two, based on the differing absorption rates of the two carbs. Glucose requires no digestion and so once in the intestinal tract can pass straight through the wall lining. Maltodextrin, however, requires a bit of digestion to split it into the glucose molecules that make it up. The difference of digestion is not really that much in the way of time, but can make a big difference. This is because glucose enters the cell via active transport (4) and only so much can get through at any one time once the receptors are all being utilised. By taking in maltodextrin, the longer digestion and absorption rate means the glucose from the malto is getting to the cell more or less once the first glucose molecules are in. So you’re basically ‘lining the glucose up’.
Dextrose is derived from corn starch, (very similar to maltodextrin)It is produced by the enzyme conversion of corn starch and refined by ion-exchange demineralization. Dextrose is a fine white powder, hygroscopic and dissolves in water instantly (disappears).
Dextrose is a high glycemic carbohydrate that should be used for pre or post workout supplementation. The objective in using dextrose is to cause a rapid increase in insulin levels thus shuttling amino acids into the muscle cells. This method of combining carbohydrates and protein before and after workouts has been proven numerous times over and over again in research studies. Taking protein in conjunction with carbohydrates produces greater muscle gains and creates an anabolic effect better than taking protein or carbohydrates alone.
Research patented by a supplement company showed that combining 75 grams of dextrose with 5-10 grams of creatine and 200mg of ALA showed to increase the effectiveness of creatine monohydrate. Or 100 grams of dextrose with 5-10 grams of creatine will increase the effectiveness.
Take dextrose after you workout out, when glycogen levels are low. Approximately 50 to 100 grams. Using creatine with dextrose is an excellant anabolic agent.
This complex carbohydrate is otherwise known as a glucose polymer. Maltrodextrin has the highest rating on the glycemic index of 100. Texture is a fine white powder possessing a bland taste and excellent dispersion in water or other beverages. Maltodextrin increases the mixability of protein powders when added to them.
Typical Analysis of 100 grams
Base Common Starch
Moisture 5.0 %
Dextrose Equivalent 18.0
Total Carbohydrates - 93.8 gms
Sugars 9.1 gms
Protein 0.1 gms
Monosaccharides 4.5 %
Disaccharides 4.5 %
Trisaccharides 4.5 %
Tetrasaccarides & higher 86.5 %
Maltodextrin has the ability to replace glycogen stores quickly and spare amino acid catabolism. Maltodextrin will raise one insulin level, making them more apt to absorb more nutrients. Also recommended for bodybuilders on low carbohydrate diets to prevent glyconeogenesis, though timing is crucial. Maltodextrin is also used to increase vascularity of the muscle and give one the "pumped" look.
these are good article on carb importance and where to get them from...
The fiber file: seven facts about one of bodybuilding's most important nutrients (http://articles.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0KFY/is_7_21/ai_107422306)
Significance Of Carbohydrate In Our Daily Diet (http://www.bawarchi.com/health/carbohydrate.html)
The important thing to understand about carbs is that they have a " protein sparring " effect. Which means when your body has enough carbs to fuel itself, it will be able to more fully utilize amino acids for the maintenance, repair and growth of muscle tissues. This is why carbs are so vital to a bodybuilder who is trying to gain mass. In edition, eating too few carbohydrates can leave your muscles feeling and looking flat. Muscle fullness depends, to a large extent, on the glycogen stores within them. Likewise, your vascularity also depends on your carbohydrate intake. A prime example of this can perhaps be traced to your last cutting or dieting cycle. When dieting your veins disappear between meals and appear after meals. Top bodybuilders note that ingesting some simple sugars before a competition brings out their vascularity.
Carbohydrates are also chiefly responsible for inducing the release of our bodies most anabolic hormone, Insulin! As I have stated many times before, insulin literally shuttles amino acids and other vital nutrients into our muscles for growth. However, insulin is also the chief hormone responsible for fat storage. My suggestion is to stay as clean as possible with your carbohydrate intake. Eat clean starchy carbs such as sweet potatoes and oatmeal. Also eat fibrous green carbs such as lettuce, spinach and any other green veggy. Stay far away from anything that is bleached or processed such as white bread, candy, white rice and other carbs along those lines. Cleaner, fibrous carbs digest slowly and do not induce an overproduction of insulin. Hence you get a steady even stream of this hormone, reaping the anabolic effects of it, while suppressing the fat storing side of it. Remember processed foods usually always induce an overproduction of insulin.
06-30-2004, 09:51 AM
EGCG - Green Tea Extract
Scientists at the University of Chicago's Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research have found that a major chemical component of green tea caused rats to lose up to 21 percent of their body weight. Rats injected with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) derived from green tea leaves lost their appetites and consumed up to 60 percent less food after seven days of daily injections.
rats injected with EGCG had lower levels of testosterone (70 percent less in the bloodstream) and insulin.
EGCG was less effective when rats were given the substance orally. "This may be because of poor absorption of EGCG or possibly because of an interaction with food," said Liao. The researchers also found that EGCG reduced abdominal and subcutaneous (just under the skin) fat, and blood levels of lipid, glucose and cholesterol, but did not appear to cause liver damage.
Although oral administration of EGCG was ineffective even after 14 consecutive days of large doses, Liao thinks that long term oral consumption may mimic some of the results obtained with injection.
"A person would have to drink green tea almost constantly to obtain these results," said Liao. "And since some of the hormonal changes we saw in the rats could have negative effects, especially in younger people, I don't recommend drinking large quantities of green tea for everybody. Much more research needs to be done," cautioned Liao.
The University of Chicago Medical Center
Lipoderm vs. Ab-Solve
Info from Bradley
Q. I'm in fairly good shape, am 27 and 5'10 at 188 at around 8% bf. My stomach tends to hold a bit more fat than other parts of my body and I'm wondering if either of these products, or both would be good for me?!
A. Ab-Solved will be useful in reducing visceral fat, which is the fat that surrounds your organ (appears to be under the muscle), where as Lipoderm will be useful in reducing subcutaneous bf, i.e. stubborn bf (love handles, lower abs, lower back, etc.).
Q. Are they short term or long term gains?
A. The products will have long term effects, assuming that you do not gain any fat after you discontinue use. Obviously if you switch to a hypercaloric diet you will increase the probability of gaining fat back in those particular areas.
Q. Do they have to be used in conjunction with a special diet?
I'm currently on a bulk trying to get up to 200 by January at which time I'm going to cut.
A. These products are best used in conjuntion with a hypocaloric diet, especially Lipoderm. Lipoderm will only work if you are in a calorie deficit, where as Ab-Solved "could" help with reducing visceral fat, even if eating above maintenance. Needless to say, I would recommend that you eat below maintenance if you do decide to use either of these products.
How to Enhance Your Lipoderm for Greater Fat Loss (http://www.avantlabs.com/page.php?pageID=175&issueID=16)
There is one very intriguing way in which we can enhance Lipoderm’s efficacy. Namely, I want to talk about reducing adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. I would like to make real Lyle McDonald’s ultimate dream of insulin resistant fat tissue that does not negatively affect muscle tissue. Theoretically, this should be possible via Lipoderm’s localized delivery vehicle. Often in bodybuilding literature we discuss things that improve one’s insulin sensitivity. However, it is pretty rare that we converse on how we might induce insulin insensitivity. The problem is even more complicated if we want to keep the effect as localized as is physically possible.
There is indeed a way to induce localized insulin resistance. The key compound involved is Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide or CGRP for short. CGRP is an interesting little molecule that is released from the sympathetic nervous system. It tends to cause calcium depletion from cells. Interestingly, one of CGRP’s side effects when released in large amounts happens to be insulin resistance. In fact, it has been proposed that CGRP is one of the prime factors responsible for inducing the small amounts of insulin resistance seen in smokers. People who have smoked for several years generally exhibit a very mild insulin insensitivity that resembles a pre-diabetic state, though it seldom develops into real diabetes unless one is genetically prone. This mild insulin resistance generally disappears if the subject quits smoking. It just so happens that nicotine causes a large release of CGRP through interaction with the nerves that compose the sympathetic nervous system. So, nicotine is one way of eliciting localized insulin resistance. I will talk more about that later. Instead I would like to move on to the compound that I think holds more promise: namely, Capsaicin.
Capsaicin is the stuff in peppers that gives them their hot taste. Of interest here is that, when nerves are exposed to capsaicin, they release a very large amount of CGRP. Of course, too much CGRP and you can actually damage the nerve permanently. Curiously, by permanently damaging capsaicin-sensitive nerves, rats and mice actually get leaner. For example, in one study researchers took mice and desensitized them to capsaicin by giving them a very large dose of the compound at the age of 1.5 months. They then compared those mice with matched controls at one year of age. What they found was that that the desensitized mice had 9% less epididymal and 30 % less retroperitoneal fat than the controls. This was due to a reduction in the number of fat cells. The authors proposed that by desensitizing the capsaicin-sensitive neurons they attenuated the normal age-associated increase in CGRP activity and thus promoted whole body insulin insensitivity.
Now it’s entirely questionable if humans would have a similar reaction, as rats and mice use their capsaicin-sensitive neurons to regulate thermogenesis in their brown fat tissue. So, we could be witnessing some kind of interaction with the brown fat thermogenesis system, which in turn causes this leanness. Now, much can be said about capsaicin as a fat loss aid at least in rats. But we are kind of getting off track.
What we really want to do for our purposes is provide a small dose of capsaicin to the nerve tissue that surrounds our subcutaneous adipose tissue. This way CGRP is released in this region resulting in localized insulin resistance, which should enhance fat loss from the targeted area. Furthermore CGRP is one of the most potent—if not the most potent –vasodilator naturally produced by the human body. So, it should substantially increase blood flow to the area, allowing for removal of the fatty acids that are released by Lipoderm’s lipolytic ingredients.
Now back to nicotine. Not only does nicotine also cause the release of CGRP, it does so synergistically with capsaicin. In fact it seems that nicotine may sensitize the vanilloid receptors that capsaicin binds to (Yes that’s vanilloid as in vanilla; capsaicin and vanilla are very close cousins at the molecular level). Nicotine is of course mildly lipolytic in its own right, which is an added benefit. In short I propose the addition of nicotine and capsaicin to the Lipoderm formula of your choice for enhanced fat reduction.
You may be wondering why this was not included in the formula if it’s so potent. Well there is one downside and let me tell you it’s a big one: that downside is pain. I have tried this concoction and I will say it is not even remotely pleasant. I tried this with the original Lipoderm formula and felt the results were at least an order of magnitude better than what I experienced with Lipoderm alone.
Can I take Thermocin or any other fat burner AND Lipoderm or Ab-Solve?
Use of these stimulants shouldn't be an issue with Absolved, but I cannot
recommend you use these substances in conjunction with Lipoderm-Y or
Though the probability of a negative reaction is in all likelihood slight,
it still exists, and is not something we advise.
Lipoderm will not cause problems because its designed to only work on the localized area (hence topical fat loss) it doesnt have DMSO, or any carrier to make it go into your blood stream, If any goes into the blood stream it will be a very insignificant amount. The only reason that they probably said this was legal reasons but they recommend Avant labs, to take an ECA or an oral fat burner to increase overall results.
In my opinion, Thermocin at full dose, combined with any caffeine someone might drink in a day (not much I hope), is at the limit of stimulants that should be consumed in a 24 hr period.
06-30-2004, 09:52 AM
How much water
What happens is the sodium level in the blood reaches very low levels (because of dilution by excess water which can only be excreted in the urine, sweat or breath). This disturbs water balance in the brain, which can cause epileptic seizures and even death.
Research has shown that a person can safely drink up to 10 liters of water a day. An exception would be persons with kidney disease who are limited in the amount of water they can drink per day. Persons with bladder infections benefit from increasing their water intake.
A large volume of water thins the blood and can actually make you "drunk." It washes water soluble nutrients (such as B vitamins) from the body. For a few persons with congestive heart disease or other conditions, serious edema or other conditions might occur. The kidneys have to work harder to remove the excess water from the body and that too must be taken into account. Someone drinking a lot of water would have to take vitamins and minerals to replace those purged from the body and would have to carefully avoid salt.
"water intoxication." Is usually associated with long distance events like running and cycling, it’s not an unusual problem.
For example, water intoxication was reported in 18% of marathon runners and in 29% of the finishers in a Hawaiian Ironman Triathlon in studies published recently in the Annals of Internal Medicine and in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise respectively.
What happens is that as the athlete consumes large amounts of water over the course of the event, blood plasma (the liquid part of blood) increases. As this takes place, the salt content of the blood is diluted. At the same time, the athlete is losing salt by sweating. Consequently, the amount of salt available to the body tissues decreases over time to a point where the loss interferes with brain, heart, and muscle function.
The official name for this condition is hyponatremia. The symptoms generally mirror those of dehydration (apathy, confusion, nausea, and fatigue), although some individuals show no symptoms at all. If untreated, hyponatremia can lead to coma and even death.
Enough, but not too much. The fluid requirement for the majority of endurance athletes, under most conditions, is about 8 to 16 ounces per hour. There is considerable variation here, of course, due to individual sweating rates, body size and weight, heat and humidity, and running speed, and other factors. Still, much more than this amount of fluid is, in most instances, probably physiologically excessive as well as uncomfortable, as liquid sloshes around in the gut during the activity.
It is now thought people should follow the dictates of thirst and not to exceed 1-1.5 quarts per hour
1 liter = 4.22675282 US cups
1 US gallon = 3.7854118 liters
1 US cup = 8 US fluid ounces
1 US quart = 4 US cups
1 US gallon = 4 US quarts
SOO!!! it appears that
4-6 cups, or 32-48oz per hour is close to the limit
and 42 cups, 336oz, 2.65 gallons is around the safe daily intake limit, although its considered VERY high and beyond overkill
06-30-2004, 09:53 AM
Creatine-dextrose and protein-dextrose induce similar strength gains during training (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11740297&dopt=Abstract)
for the study they used 10g of creatine mono + 75g of glucose
Dextrose is higher glycemic and causes longer and higher insulin spikes than say fructose or sucrose.
It's the highest glycemic natural sugar. Even at that, the largest part of the insulin boost will be gone by the time the creatine reaches the muscle.
Dextrose makes the creatine more expensive because pharmaceutical-grade dextrose isn't cheap and you need a lot of it.
What is effective?
Isn't it plain to the eye that you need to create an insulin spike when the creatine reaches the muscle? Well, I did the research myself on a total of 25 subjects, 10 taking creatine with grape juice, 8 taking it with OJ and extra OJ at 20,30 and 40 minutes after ingestion, and the last 7 taking it with milk and drinking OJ at 20, 30 and 40 minutes after ingestion.
The result was overwhelming. The second and third group gained 92 and 83 percent more muscle mass over a period of 8 weeks. I opted for OJ because not everyone is a big fan of grape juice, but I would guess using the same amounts of grape juice would create greater insulin spikes and be more effective.
Using dextrose could be amazingly effective, at 3 doses of 20g
20, 30 and 40 minutes after ingestion.edited for size/content
06-30-2004, 09:53 AM
Impact of food/air temperature on calories burned
In theory, raising the temperature of 1 liter of water by one degree Celsius (from body heat or any other heat) takes 1,000 calories.
The lower the temperature of the water the faster this would happen.
If all of the warming of the water came from body heat then in theory the body would have to replace this by burning 1,000 calories of fat (or sugar).
The body must remain at about 37-degrees Celsius (98.6-degrees Fahrenheit) to function normally.
So iff extracting heat from someone fast enough to make some fat burning difference, hypothermia would quickly set in.
This is a condition in which the body temperature decreases below 37-degrees Celsius and shock begins to set in (lowering of blood pressure and repiratory rates).
In concluson, for losing weight there is no substitute (including the Cold Water Vest) for moving more (i.e., exercise) while eating less (i.e., well- balanced weight loss diet recommended by a doctor familiar with your health).
Frederick Sweet, Ph.D. Ob-Gyn, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis MO
Calorie (cal): A calorie is the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1oC, from 16.5o C to 17.5o C.
1 calorie = 4.184 joules (J)
suppose that you drank water that was 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Your body must burn a few calories to warm the water to body temperature of 98.6 degrees. To raise one pint of 50 degree water the 48.6 degrees to body temperature, about 12.25 calories are burned. That doesn't sound like much, but suppose you drink only 3 pints a day for a year; that's almost 4500 calories or 1.4 to 3.1 pounds of weight loss.
If the water were colder, say ice cold, or if more water was drunk, more calories would be burned and more weight would potentially be lost.
There is also a slight "carry factor." Your body must burn a few calories just to carry the weight of the water you drink. A pint of water is said to weigh a pound, so carrying that pint inside your body is like carrying a one pound weight in your hand. Your body will burn a few calories simply to tote the weight around.
For the cold water diet, the "carry factor" is not very great, but over a year it will amount to the loss of more than an additional pound. Supposing you "carry" the pound of cold water during 18 hours of the day, you'll burn about an extra 4100 calories per year. On average, that would represent about 1.9 pounds of additional weight loss.
Your body's "appestat" is located in the brain near the "thermostat." If your body temperature drops, your appetite increases and you experience hunger. Eating "stokes the furnace," generates heat, and helps warm your body. Hence, winter exercisers should always carry carbs with them for fuel. Winter campers, for example, commonly keep a supply of dried fruit, chocolate or cookies nearby, so they can "stoke the furnace" if they wake up cold in the middle of the night.
Food's overall warming effect is known as thermogenesis (that is, "heat making"). Thirty to sixty minutes after you eat, your body generates about 10% more heat than when you have an empty stomach. This increased metabolism stems primarily from energy released during digestion. Hence, eating not only provides fuel but also increases heat production.
scantily clad research subjects who exercised in the cold (14 degrees F) burned 13% more calories than when they performed the same exercise at room temperature--about 450 vs 400 calories/hour
If you drink a gallon a day, 4 liters, that's only 140 Calories. That's a lot of water. Plus you put stress on your body drinking that much, as it has to
fight to keep from losing ions.
http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/zoo00/zoo00094.htmthis would equal 14.6lbs of weight loss per year!
06-30-2004, 09:54 AM
"The only way to alter your resting metabolism permanently is to gain or lose weight, or to build extra muscle," says Janet Walberg-Rankin, Ph.D., a professor of exercise physiology at Virginia Tech.
Metabolism Booster Pack #1: Milk, Whole-Grain Cereal, and Oatmeal
Secret Ingredients: Calcium, complex carbohydrates, and fiber
How they work: Complex carbohydrates and fiber pump up metabolism by keeping insulin levels low after you eat. That's good, because spikes in the production of insulin send a signal to the body that it's time to start storing fat. And in order to stockpile fat, your body has to slow down your metabolism, causing you to burn fewer calories, says Margaret McNurlan, Ph.D., a professor of nutrition and medicine at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Since oatmeal breaks down slowly in the stomach, it causes less of a spike in insulin levels than foods like bagels, she says.
Besides helping to keep insulin production down, eating breakfast can also help stoke your daily calorie burn. When the U.S. Navy studied the metabolisms and eating habits of a group of its personnel, it found that eating breakfast helped raise the men's metabolisms by as much as 10 percent. "By skipping meals, you slow down your metabolism and prime your body to store fat," says McNurlan.
The calcium in milk is a metabolic trigger as well. A University of Tennessee study found that dieters who consumed between 1,200 and 1,300 milligrams (mg) of calcium a day lost nearly twice as much weight as dieters getting less calcium.
Metabolism Booster Pack #2: Jalapeno, Habanero, and Cayenne Peppers
Secret Ingredient: Capsaicin — the chemical in peppers that gives them their bite
How it works: By speeding up your heart rate. A study from the late '80s found that eating a single spicy meal can boost your metabolism by up to 25 percent, with the spike in calorie burning lasting for up to 3 hours after you finish eating. More recently, a study from Laval University in Quebec found that men who consumed coffee plus red pepper-packed snacks and meals were able to burn nearly 1,000 more calories a day than a control group.
Small snacks can also help keep your body from running out of fuel — preventing those 3 p.m. office blahs. "When you restrict the number of calories your body has for fuel, your metabolic rate can drop temporarily," says Susan Roberts, Ph.D., chief of the energy-metabolism laboratory at Tufts University in Boston. That makes it easier to pack on the pounds and harder to burn them off again.
Metabolism Booster Pack #3: Green Tea and Coffee
Secret Ingredients: Caffeine and a chemical in the tea called EGCG
How they work: Caffeine helps speed up your heart rate. The faster your heart beats, the more calories you burn. EGCG works in a similar way, but instead of revving up your heart, it causes your brain and nervous system to run more quickly — again helping you burn more calories.
In studies, researchers found that a combination of caffeine and a 90-mg dose of EGCG taken three times a day can help you burn an extra 80 calories a day. And that's just when your body's at rest. A study conducted by the Canadian government found that soldiers who consumed caffeine in the 12 hours prior to a physical-fitness test not only were able to work out longer before becoming exhausted, but also consumed more oxygen while working out. The body's oxygen requirements are directly related to the speed of — guess what — your metabolism, so the more oxygen you use, the more calories you burn during your workout.
Metabolism Booster Pack #4: Lean Beef, Pork, Chicken, and Turkey
Secret Ingredient: Protein
How it works: It takes more energy for your body to digest the protein in meat than it does for it to digest carbohydrates or fat, according to Doug Kalman, R.D., director of nutrition at Miami Research Associates, a nationally recognized pharmaceutical-research facility. "That means that the more protein you eat, the harder your body has to work to digest it, and the more calories you'll burn in the process," he says.
When researchers at Arizona State University compared the benefits of a high-protein diet with those of a high-carbohydrate diet, they found that people who ate a high-protein diet burned more than twice as many calories in the hours following their meal as those eating carbs. Even better, researchers in Denmark found that men who substituted protein for 20 percent of the carbs in their diets were able to boost their metabolisms, increasing the number of calories they burned each day by up to 5 percent.
Metabolism Booster Pack #5: Salmon, Tuna, and Sardines
Secret Ingredient: Omega-3 fatty acids
How they work: By altering levels of a hormone called leptin in your body, which directly influences your metabolism, determining whether you burn calories or store them as fat.
Researchers at the University of Wisconsin found that mice with low leptin levels have faster metabolisms and are able to burn fat more quickly than animals with higher leptin levels.
Mayo Clinic researchers studying the diets of two African tribes — one of which frequently ate fish and one of which didn't-found that fish eaters had leptin levels nearly five times lower than the levels found in tribes that primarily ate vegetables.
French researchers found that men who replaced 6 grams of fat in their diets with 6 grams of fish oil were able to boost their metabolisms and lose an average of 2 pounds in just 12 weeks.
06-30-2004, 09:54 AM
Increasing 1-7 minute sport endurance
According to Mc Naughton et al. (1997), research found that the consumption of sodium bicarbonate in athletes competing in short events (1-7 minutes) improved their performance by 1-2%. This means that if you were Kevin Herlihy of the UCSB men's swim team and you increased your performance in the 200m freestyle (1:40.81) by 2%, you could potentially decrease your time by about 2.02 seconds.
07-29-2004, 09:52 AM
Scammed online? here are some steps to get justice:
As a cop I can answer this.
Charge is Obtaining Property by False Pretense or Fraudulent Misrepresentation, both felonies in all fifty states.
All you need to do is
A) file a report in the county it occured in
B) have the PD draw felony charges
C) enter her NCIC
D) have her picked up in any state in the US
If any of you guys are ripped off on the net, the appropriate jurisdiction is YOURS, not the criminals.
09-15-2005, 09:12 AM
wow, cant believe ive been reading stuff here for so long and never stumbled on this. Very nicely done!
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