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Bupp
03-01-2007, 11:48 AM
I'm in the middle of reading Advanced Sports Nutrition 2nd Edition by Dan Benardot. I'm going to use this thread to post any interesting/useful nutrition info I come across.

Carb:

- 4 cal/g
- Energy/Muscular Fuel (starch/sugars/glycogen)
- Cholesterol/Fat Control (dietary fiber)
- Digestion Assistance (dietary fiber)
- Nutrient/Water Absorption (sugars)

Protein:

- 4 cal/g
- Energy Source (if carb-depleted)
- Deliver Essential Amino Acids
- Develop New Tissue (growth/injury repair)
- Maintain Existing Tissue
- Substance used to make enzymes/antibodies/hormones
- Fluid Balance (water level inside/outside cells)
- Carry Substances in Blood (vitamins/minerals/fat to and from cells)

Fat:

- 9cal/g
- Deliver Fat Soluble Vitamin (A/D/E/K)
- Deliver Essential Fatty Acid
- Energy/Muscular Fuel (low-intensity activity)
- Satiety Control (feel more satisfied from eating)
- Substance Used to Make Hormones

Bupp
03-01-2007, 12:19 PM
Factors that Increase Carb usage in exercise:

- High-Intensity Activity
- Long-Duration Activity
- Exercise in hot/cold temperature
- High Altitude
- Age (Higher in young boys then men)

Factors that decrease Carb Usage in Exercise:

- Endurance Training
- Good Conditioning
- Temperature Adaptation
- Gender


Neat Fact:

1 liter oxygen can release 5 calories of energy from carbs but only 4.7 calories of energy from fat.

Bupp
03-01-2007, 12:47 PM
Recommended Carb Intake:

0-4 Hours after Exercise: 1g/kg body weight each hour

Daily recovery: 5-7g/kg body weight (includes after exercise carbs)

Daily recovery endurance training: 7-12g/kg (includes after exercise carbs)

Daily recovery from extreme (4+hours) training: 10-12+g/kg body weight

Omega-6 - 5g-10g/day
Omega-3 - 0.6g-1.2g/day

Fact:

Adding glycerol to water you drink will let you super-hydrate.

Bupp
03-01-2007, 03:30 PM
Recommended Protein Intake:

Non-Athlete: 0.8g/kg body weight

Athlete: 1.2-1.7g/kg body weight
Strength Athlete: 1.6g-1.7g/kg

Athlete needs more protein because:

- have higher LBM requiring more protein to sustain
- Amino acid from protein = 5%-15% of energy used in exercise
- Exercise can cause muscle damage increasing protein needed to repair
- Endurance exercise can cause small amounts protein to be lost in urine

How a 165 pound man who strength trains can gain 6.6 pounds of muscle:

- Eat 4.5g additional protein each day
- Eat 90g additional carbs each day
- Total additional calories = 378/day (enough to support 6.6 pound increase in muscle)

Bupp
03-01-2007, 04:20 PM
Vitamins:

B1 (Thiamin)

- 0.5mg/1000calories eaten BUT <3.0mg total

B2 (Riboflavin)

- 1.1mg/1000 calories eaten

Niacin:

- 60mg tryptophan (amino ACID) can convert into 1mg niacin
- 14-20mg/day
- toxic at 20-35mg/day (cause flushing, burning tingling, hepatitis/gastric ulcer at chronic high intake
- Niacin supplements lowered endurance in athletes

B6

- 0.016mg/1g protein eaten
- toxic at 60mg-100mg/day (loss of sensation in limbs.loss of balance + coordination)
- Increases Growth Hormone production

B12 (cobalamin)

- 2.4mcg-2.5mcg/day
- toxicity no established
- common for athletes to inject 1g before competition, no evidence of improved performance

Folic Acid

- 400mcg/day
- tolerable upper limit 600mcg-1000mcg/day

Biotin

- 30mcg/day

Pantothenic Acid

- may/may not improve athletic performance
- 4mg-5mg/day

C

- 200mcg/day
- tolerable upper limit 1.2g-2g/day

sCaRz*Of*PaiN
03-01-2007, 04:28 PM
Are you going to do this until the entire book has been copied?

Bupp
03-01-2007, 04:31 PM
Scarz:

Those 4 posts cover the first 50 pages of the book.

sCaRz*Of*PaiN
03-01-2007, 04:36 PM
That's some crazy summarizing then.

MagnaSephiroth
03-01-2007, 04:56 PM
Must be a fluffy book then

Bupp
03-01-2007, 05:31 PM
Fat Soluble Vitamins:

A (Retinol)

- 700mcg-900mcg/day
- Tolerable Upper Limit 1.7mg-30mg/day (Liver damage, bone malformations, death)
- Don't supplement with it, instead take beta-carotene (anti-oxidant that converts to vitamin A if needed)

D

- 5mcg-15mcg/day
- most potentially toxic vitamin
- Upper Tolerable Limit 50mcg/day (all kinds of nasty things including death)

E

- 15mg/day
- Tolerable Upper Limits 600mg-1000mg/day

K

- 700mcg-900mcg/day
- Tolerable Upper Limit not established
- Helps prevent bruising/bleeding in contact sports

Stumprrp
03-01-2007, 05:45 PM
hey man i have this book too but im only about 20 pages in, good stuff.

Bupp
03-01-2007, 06:10 PM
Minerals:

- ~4% of body weight is minerals

Calcium

- 1300mg-1500mg/day
- Tolerable Upper Limit 2500mg/day

Phosphorus

- Pre-exercise intake may or may not improve performance
- 1250mg-1500mg/day
- Tolerable Upper Limit 4000mg/day

Magnesium

- Some studies show improved performance in endurance and strength sports
- 400mg-450mg/day from food 350mg/day from supplement
- Tolerable Upper Limit: 350mg if taken as supplement

Sodium

- >1.5g/day up to >10g/day (depending on sweat losses
- Tolerable Upper Intake Level 2.3g/day (not applicable to those that sweat regularly)

Chloride

- 2.3+g/day (match sodium intake)
- Tolerable Upper Level Intake 3.5g

Potassium

- supplementatation not recommended (risk of cardiac arrest)
- 4.7g/day, more with high levels sweat loss
- Do not intake more than 18g/day

Bupp
03-01-2007, 06:45 PM
Microminerals:

Iron

- 15mg-18mg/day
- athletes are often iron deficient

Zinc

- 11-15mg/day
- Tolerable Upper Level of Intake 40mg/day
- Zinc supplementation improved athletes muscular strength and endurance
- side effects of chronically high zinc levels have not been tested

Iodine

- 120mcg-150mcg/day
- supplementing not recommended (Depresses thyroid activity)

Selenium

- 50mcg-55mcg/day
- Tolerable Upper Intake Level 400mcg/day

Copper

- 900 mcg/day
- Tolerable Upper Intake Level 10mg/day

Manganese

- 2.0mg-2.5mg/day
- Tolerable Upper Intake Level 11mg/day

Chromium

- Initial studies suggest supplementing increases muscle mass and decreases body fat in bodybuilders and football players
- Subsequent studies have not reached same conclusions
- 30mcg-35mcg/day

Bupp
03-02-2007, 11:29 AM
Substances that Improve Performance:

Amphetamines - Illegal
Anabolic Steroids - Illegal
ANDROSTENEDIOL - Banned by IOC
Beta-Blockers - Banned by IOC
Blood Doping - Illegal
Cocaine - Illegal
Diuretics - Banned by IOC
Ephedrine + Caffeine - Banned by IOC/others + Illegal to sell in USA/others
EPO - Illegal
Human Growth Hormone - Illegal


Antioxidants - Enhance muscle recovery; reduce muscle breakdown - mixed results, no clear benefit
Aspartates - Increase use of free fatty acids, sparing muscle glycogen - mixed results
Branched-Chain Amino Acids - Reduce CNS fatigue - Mixed Results
Caffeine - Increase muscle contractility; Improve aerobic endurance; Improve fat metabolism - clear benefit
Carbohydrates - Improve performance; lower fatigue - Clear Benefit
Choline - Improve Endurance - Mixed Results
Creatine - Improves repeated high-intensity activity endurance - Benefit but no long term safety data
Fluids - Increase endurance - Clear Benefit
Glucosamine - Serves as NSAID alternative; enhances muscle recovery - Limited Benefit
Glutamine - Boosts immunity and growth hormone levels - May boost immunity
Glycerol - Improves hydration/performance - Some benefit
HMB - Decreases muscle breakdown; enhances recovery - Limited studies. some strength benefits
Phosphates - Increase ATP production/energy and muscle endurance - Mixed results
Protein - Optimizes muscular growth and repair - Sligtly increased need for protein with increased activity
Sodium Bicarbonate - Buffers Lactic Acid Production/delays fatigue - Some Benefit
Vitamin E - Acts as antioxidant; improves aerobic capacity - Some positive findings

sCaRz*Of*PaiN
03-02-2007, 11:59 AM
Anabolic Steroids - IllegalOh wow...I didn't know that. :windup:

Bupp
03-02-2007, 12:07 PM
Scarz: The gym I work out at has needle disposal bins in the changeroom. Hmm, I wonder what those are for.

sCaRz*Of*PaiN
03-02-2007, 12:12 PM
Diabetics?

Bupp
03-02-2007, 12:31 PM
Fluid Intake Before exercise:

1. Thirst occurs after you have already lost 1.5L-2.0L of water
2. Get used to drinking fluids when not feeling thirsty. Carry fluid with you wherever you are.
3. Drink enough fluid before exercise to produce clear urine.
4. 1-1.5 hours before competition consume ~0.5L of fluid. Then sip 0.125mL of fluid every 10 minutes until competition begins.
5. Do not superhydrate using glycerol before competition unless you have practiced it before hand and seen how it effects you.
6. Avoid Coffee, tea, chocolate, and soda

Fluid Intake after Exercise:

1. Drink 0.5L immediately after exercise.
2. Drink 0.25L every 15 minutes for a total of 3L in ~3 hours
3. Fluid should contain carbs + sodium
4. Eat some salted snacks (pretzel/saltine cracker) immediately after exercise

Holto
03-02-2007, 01:21 PM
Scarz: The gym I work out at has needle disposal bins in the changeroom. Hmm, I wonder what those are for.

Wow.

Where do you live dude?

What kind of gym is it?

Bupp
03-02-2007, 01:38 PM
Holto: It's the university gym. They have the view that if you are going to use drugs you might as well be safe about it. Which I agree with.

sCaRz*Of*PaiN
03-02-2007, 01:44 PM
Or so they can take samples from the discarded needles so they can get on your case later. :thumbup:

Bupp
03-02-2007, 01:47 PM
My sport isn't drug tested at the college level anyhow (not that I use, if you look at my stats I clearly don't).