Do Squats and Deadlifts cause herniated disc or disc injuries in the long run,
with 1 rep max or many reps
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Training log: (Mastermonster's Quest For The Records)
I used to get minor injuries all the time training submission wrestling and muay thai, once I started lifting they all went away and I never got injured again. I've heard a ton of people who report the same exact thing as well. Plenty of people with back injuries have told me that deadlifting eliminated all of their back pain and as long as they continued lifting, it didn't return.
If you're using good form, warming up enough, not trying to squat/pull weights that you aren't ready for and doing a little bit of stretching when it's needed, there's no reason that you should ever get seriously injured.
Honestly, I've seen way more couch potato types herniate a disk than powerlifters. It's usually from training the abs a ton and never training the lower back. The injury happens from rotational movement, because the abs are much stronger than the lower back. The abs can generate force to move, but the lower back isn't strong enough to be the brakes.
It's the same reason you see so many ACL and rotator cuff injuries in athletes. The muscles that generate the movement are much stronger than the muscles used for braking. People only train the muscles that generate movement.