The Five Biggest Contradictions in Fitness
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The Five Biggest Contradictions in Fitness

Itís no secret that when people contradict themselves, it has the effect of making the flaws in their actions or statements seem glaringly obvious. But what about when WE ourselves get caught contradicting ourselves by someone else?

By: Nick Tumminello Added: January 6th, 2014
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  1. #1
    confused by simplicity bradley's Avatar
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    Weight Loss/Gain--Varies from person to person

    Just read this and thought I would post it.
    ----------------------

    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996 May;20(5):393-405.

    Autoregulation of body composition during weight recovery in human: the Minnesota Experiment revisited.

    Dulloo AG, Jacquet J, Girardier L.

    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland.

    OBJECTIVES: To gain insights into the control systems underlying human variability in the regulation of body composition during weight recovery, as well as the disproportionate recovery of fat relative to lean tissue, the classical Minnesota Experiment conducted on 32 men subjected to long-term semi-starvation and refeeding was revisited with the following objectives: (1) to determine whether the control of energy-partitioning between lean and fat tissues during weight loss and weight recovery is an individual characteristic, and if a predictor can be statistically identified, (2) to determine whether the reduction in thermogenesis during weight loss persists during weight recovery, and underlies the disproportionate recovery of fat tissue and (3) to integrate the control of energy-partitioning and that of thermogenesis in order to explain the pattern of lean and fat tissue mobilisation and deposition during weight loss and weight recovery. METHODS: Individual data on body weight, body fat, fat-free-mass (FFM), and basal metabolic rate (BMR), assessed during the control baseline period (i.e. prior to weight loss), at the end of 24 weeks of semi-starvation, and at the end of a 12 week period of restricted refeeding, were used to calculate the following parameters: (i) a quantitative index of energy-partitioning, the P-ratio, defined as the proportion of body energy mobilised as protein during weight loss, or as the proportion of body energy deposited as protein during weight recovery, (ii) a quantitative index of changes in thermogenesis, defined as the change in BMR adjusted for FFM (or for both FFM and fat mass) and (iii) the degree of replenishment of fat and FFM compartments, defined as the recovery of body fat and FFM (during refeeding) as a percentage of that lost during semi-starvation. RESULTS: This re-analysis indicates the following: (i) a large inter-individual variability in P-ratio during both weight loss and weight recovery, but for a given individual, the P-ratio during refeeding is strongly correlated with the P-ratio during semi-starvation, (ii) body composition during the control period is the most important predictor of variability in P-ratio, such that the higher the initial % body fat, the lower the proportion of energy mobilised as protein, and hence the greater the propensity to mobilise fat during semi-starvation and to subsequently deposit fat during refeeding and (iii) at week 12 of refeeding, the change in adjusted BMR is found to be reduced by a magnitude which is inversely proportional to the degree of fat recovery, but is unrelated to the degree of FFM recovery. A quantitative relationship is derived between the P-ratio during refeeding, the % fat recovery, and the P-ratio during semi-starvation. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence is presented here suggesting that (i) human variability in the pattern of lean and fat tissue deposition during weight recovery is to a large extent determined by individual variations in the control of energy-partitioning, for which the initial % body fat is the most important predictor and (ii) the disproportionate gain in fat relative to lean tissue during weight recovery is contributed by a reduction in thermogenesis (i.e. increased efficiency of food utilization) for accelerating specifically the replenishment of the fat stores. These control systems, operating via energy-partitioning and thermogenesis, have been integrated into a compartmental model for the regulation of body composition during underfeeding/refeeding, and can be used to explain the individual pattern of lean and fat tissue deposition during weight recovery in situations ranging from the rehabilitation after malnutrition to the relapse of obesity.

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  3. #2
    "COUNT CRACKULA" Bam Bam's Avatar
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    stimulating as always bradley too bad i forget what i read moments later.
    Blocka Blocka

    I am AMINAL

  4. #3
    Senior Member Spartacus's Avatar
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    (iii) at week 12 of refeeding, the change in adjusted BMR is found to be reduced by a magnitude which is inversely proportional to the degree of fat recovery, but is unrelated to the degree of FFM recovery.
    what does this mean?

  5. #4
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    brad-------summary please!!!!

  6. #5
    $3n10r M3mb3r defcon's Avatar
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    these studys use words that my mind can not understand Bump on geekboy's post

    Seems interesting tho bradely.. If i understood it

    P.S. THis is the FIRST post i ever seen you start, wow

  7. #6
    $3n10r M3mb3r defcon's Avatar
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    afer reading it again.. this is what i understand from it..

    1. The lower your bf% when you start to bulk.. means you get a better lean mass to fat mass gain.

    2. If you were once fat, and cut down to a X bf%, when you bulk up.. you are going to gain more fat then a person gaining the same amount of weight who also started at X bf%, but the 2nd person was at X bf% their entire life.

  8. #7
    confused by simplicity bradley's Avatar
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    Originally posted by Spartacus
    what does this mean?
    "(iii) at week 12 of refeeding, the change in adjusted BMR is found to be reduced by a magnitude which is inversely proportional to the degree of fat recovery, but is unrelated to the degree of FFM recovery. A quantitative relationship is derived between the P-ratio during refeeding, the % fat recovery, and the P-ratio during semi-starvation. "

    The P-ratio is the ratio of protein to fat that is lost or gained during weight loss and refeeding.

    The way I interpret the above statement, is that after 12 weeks of refeeding (gaining weight) basal metabolic rate (BMR) is decreased according to the amount of fat that is re-gained, i.e. as fat increases BMR decreases, but the reduction in BMR is not related to the amount of LBM that is re-gained.

    Basically during starvation you lose a certain percentage of fat and protein, and when refeeding you gain back a similar percentage of fat and protein.
    Last edited by bradley; 10-30-2003 at 04:35 PM.

  9. #8
    confused by simplicity bradley's Avatar
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    Originally posted by greekboy80
    brad-------summary please!!!!
    Basically this kind of backs up the whole bf setpoint theory, in that your body will try and maintain a certain bf%.

  10. #9
    Senior Member Spartacus's Avatar
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    bump
    (i) a large inter-individual variability in P-ratio during both weight loss and weight recovery, but for a given individual, the P-ratio during refeeding is strongly correlated with the P-ratio during semi-starvation,
    this seems to indicate that cutting and bulking cycling don't have a net effect on body composition.

    These control systems, operating via energy-partitioning and thermogenesis, have been integrated into a compartmental model for the regulation of body composition during underfeeding/refeeding, and can be used to explain the individual pattern of lean and fat tissue deposition during weight recovery in situations ranging from the rehabilitation after malnutrition to the relapse of obesity.
    this sounds like refeed for leptin and using thermogenic diet & supps with nutrient partitioning (weights, hiit, etc) might be the most important. i guess i don't really know enough about the mechanisms behind this P-ratio

  11. #10
    confused by simplicity bradley's Avatar
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    Originally posted by Spartacus
    this seems to indicate that cutting and bulking cycling don't have a net effect on body composition.
    Keep in mind that the study is looking at these changes during starvation and refeeding, which would yield different results as compared to losing or gaining a small amount of weight each week.


    this sounds like refeed for leptin and using thermogenic diet & supps with nutrient partitioning (weights, hiit, etc) might be the most important. i guess i don't really know enough about the mechanisms behind this P-ratio
    I agree, anytime any increase in nutrient partitioning would be beneficial for body composition.

    There are really no "mechanisms" behind the P-ratio, and it is best to think of it as a measurement. Basically the P-ratio would be used to describe the amount of LBM to fat that one gained or lost when bulking or cutting.

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