The Five Biggest Contradictions in Fitness
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The Five Biggest Contradictions in Fitness

Itís no secret that when people contradict themselves, it has the effect of making the flaws in their actions or statements seem glaringly obvious. But what about when WE ourselves get caught contradicting ourselves by someone else?

By: Nick Tumminello Added: January 6th, 2014
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  1. #1
    Senior Member MonStar1023's Avatar
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    Article On Muscle Growth.. Total Bullshit?

    I just stumbled upon this muscle growth study/article over @ Elite. It was orginally posted by SSAlexSS and I was wondering what you all thought of it.

    Here's where the info came from..
    http://staff.washington.edu/griffin/muscle_growth.txt

    It is about research on muscle building... and it is shocking!!!

    Examples (if you dont want to read entire article):
    • 3 sets are the best
    • Movement should be fast (real shocker for me)
    • include 10rep max atleast once (10 rep range supposedly builds lots of muscle).
    • Train muscle up to 3 times per week (novices can train one muscle 5x per week... I did that and gained 20 pounds!!!)
    • training when muscles are 'sore' may help speed recovery and is recommended - however you should not train to the point of causing 'pain' (or if you are already in 'pain')


    THE BEST WAY TO TRAIN FOR SIZE
    by Walter Eddy

    Many bodybuilders know less about 'weight training' than Medical rehab personal and Professional Sport Coaches. Ironic? - yes, after all - bodybuilding is weightlifting. Yet bodybuilders tend to seek out information from anyone who promises to make them big, tell them the secret on how to get big like the Pro bodybuilders - when the only secret is that steroids are the ONLY way to get that kinda big.

    So what do Pro Sport Coaches and Med. rehab people know that you may not - that's what is about to be covered, so pay attention if you want to know the truth - go elsewhere if you're looking for a bunch of golden promises.

    Very little money has been spent on 'bodybuilding' research. On the other hand millions have been spent on ways to improve the performance of Pro and 'Olympic' athletes. Not to mention the years of research put into studying muscle rehabilitation for medical purposes. It is from these sources that the real information on getting 'big' (as big as is possible with or without steroids), can be found. The information is out there, you just have to look for it - the important facts to you, the bodybuilder, will be covered in this article.

    Training/growth facts - what the studies prove.

    The goal of every bodybuilder is to get bigger muscles. With this goal in mind lets cover what research has taught us - and how to put it to use.

    FIRST: Muscle strength in the adult human is relative to cross section area (size). An equal cross-sectional area of muscle from any average trained women or man has about the same 'strength' (i.e.: can generate the same amount of force, 6 kg - cm2), there is very little variation. To put it another way, generally speaking - all human muscle tissue has (about)
    the same amount of strength, or is able to generate the same amount of force. So the greater the size, cross-sectional, the greater the strength. However, it is important to point out that bone structure, muscle attachments, neural factors, etc., play a very important part in performing 'feats of strength', so two people with equal cross section areas of muscle may still perform very differently -- not due to stronger muscle tissue, but due to other factors.

    What does this mean to the bodybuilder - it means that if you wish to increase muscle mass you must train the muscle to be able to generate more force - which in turn means the muscle must grow. Don't confuse increasing muscle size with increasing performance strength - performance strength - for example the amount of weight a person can bench press - depends on a number of factors - neural factors being very important.
    Increasing muscle size will help increase performance strength -- but increasing performance strength does not necessarily mean that you will increase muscle size. That may sound confusing - re-read the paragraph before this one again if you still do not understand.

    Putting this information to use. To increase muscle size (or mass), you must increase the cross sectional area. Because there is a limit to the amount of force (strength) a set cross-sectional area of muscle can generate -muscle tissue must increase in size (cross-sectional area) to be able to handle a greater force (to become 'stronger') - the result: bigger muscles. So the best way to make your muscle bigger - - train in such a way as to increase the amount of force you can generate - and, of course, to make the muscle grow as fast as possible. This last statement 'as fast
    as possible' is another key term - most types of resistance training will cause your muscles to grow, the question you should be asking is, is this the fastest way? You will find the best answers research has to offer here.

    Applying this information to your training.

    This is where powerlifters, bodybuilders and endurance athletes part ways. The goal of an endurance athlete is not to increase muscle mass - the goal of a powerlifter is to be able to generate as much power as possible - the goal of a bodybuilder is to increase muscle size as much as possible. Some training principals apply to all three, but there are also some significant differences. What will be covered here is the best way to get 'big'.

    SIDE NOTE: The untrained muscle responds much better than the trained muscle. This simply means that the untrained person will experience much faster gains in strength and growth than the person who has several months of GOOD training under there belt. This is a well known fact - not someone's opinion.

    TRAINING FOR GROWTH

    First - be sure NOT to skip the above material - the above facts play an important part in understanding how to train correctly for growth.

    Different types of exercises will not be covered here - why? - the type ofexercise you do (i.e.: push-ups, sit-ups, presses, curls, etc.) have nothing to do with growth - - they determine which muscle(s) receive the stimulation. The 'method' you use is what will cause your muscle to become bigger, stronger, faster, etc.. Let's make sure this is clear, as many people do not understand this, and it is an important point - it is HOW you train - NOT the exercise itself - - that cause muscles to grow.

    Research on muscle recovery for medical reasons has been done for hundreds of years now - that's correct - 100's. Research was greatly stepped up after World War 2 - it was at this time that the benefits of resistance training began to be understood. Over the last 20 years the benefits of resistance training have been greatly accepted and researched. Over the last few years new types of testing methods - and computers - have come a
    long way in finding the best - and fastest - way to 'build' muscle. Why is this important to people other than bodybuilders? - in the Medical community the information is considered important so that patients in rehabilitation may recover as quickly as possible. In sports it is important because it is now known that resistance training can enhance all types of performance. This is where the research is being done - and why. Bodybuilders are still on the bottom of the list - but are still included in some studies - not to help 'bodybuilders' - but to gain more understanding of muscle growth.

    So what does research tell us - some of this you may know - some may surprise you. PRE - or Progressive Resistance training - is considered the best method of training for size. Before you say 'big deal' read on - PRE has changed much over the years. It was first started by DeLorme, T.L. who did the research on it (Restoration of muscle power by heavy-resistance exercise. J. Bone Joint Surg. 27:645,1945). Many of the principles still hold true - but many refinements have been made as well.

    THE BEST WAY TO TRAIN FOR SIZE - WHAT RESEARCH HAS SHOWN

    SETS

    2 sets (of maximum effort), are far more effective that 1 (fastest
    increases in growth and strength), and it appears that 3 sets are slightly more beneficial than doing 2. There is no evidence that doing more that 3 sets will help - or hurt. Rest between sets should be at least 1 min. and no more than 5 min. - no difference has been shown between taking a 1 min. or 5 min. rest - in terms of growth and strength increases - the choice is yours. All sets should be done to the point where another rep is not
    possible. (Warm up sets should be done first).

    REPS

    Reps ranging from 3 to 12 are all considered good variations - this is not news to anyone - however this may be - it appears to be important to do at least one set of 10 RM each session. (I'm not going to go into details on this - this is what studies have concluded - take it or leave it). For those who do not understand - this means that you should do one set with enough weight so that you are only capable of doing 10 reps. You may mix
    up the sequence any way you like, examples: 3-6-10; 12-11-10; 3-10-12; 10-10-10. Any combination is acceptable - just do 1 set of 10 RM each time. (Side note: I myself am not exactly clear on the point of doing one set of 10 each session but shall continue to research this point - I believe that it may be important as a 'control' as much as any other factor.)

    PROGRESSIVE

    The progressive part of PRE means that it is very important to increase your 'load' on a weekly basis. Your 10 RM is the control. You must increase the amount of weight you use for your 10 RM each week by at least a small amount

    SPEED

    Shocker number two - it has been shown that fast movements (contractions), produce the greatest increases in strength and growth. This really should not come as a surprise. The speed of movement when lifting a weight that you are only capable of doing 10 reps with, even performing the reps as fast as possible with good form, is still very slow compared to many sports movements - such as swinging a bat, throwing a ball, running - etc. The concentric part of the movement should be done as fast as possible - however this does not mean to 'jerk' the weight - it is also very important that the movement be done in a 'smooth' manner. This is important - 'jerking' the weight may cause an increase in strength due to neural factors - but it is not the best way to increase muscle size.

    FREQUENCY

    Benefits from PRE can be achieved by training a muscle(s) as little as once a week. The best results for the TRAINED individual APPEAR to be training a muscle no more than 3 times a week, HOWEVER THIS IS NOT CONCLUSIVE - it is possible that training more or less may have a SMALL advantage - the new trainer can get best results training a muscle up to 5 times a week.. Another possible shocker - training when muscles are 'sore' may help speed recovery and is recommended - however you should not
    train to the point of causing 'pain' (or if you are already in 'pain').
    Working a muscle that is sore - even one that has been injured - will cause the muscle to recover much more rapidly that resting the muscle - you must know the difference between pain and soreness however - and should not do anything that will cause pain. (If you are recovering from an injury please be sure to follow your Doctors instructions.)

    NUTRITION and SUPPLEMENTS

    Nutrition is a very important part of getting 'big'. This should be very simple to understand but still many people don't. If you want to build a house there is one thing YOU HAVE TO HAVE - materials. If you want to build muscle you have to feed them - plain and simple. To gain mass you have to eat more than your body needs - or at least the exact amount that it needs for energy, repair, etc. (because there is no way of knowing your exact needs it is wise to eat a bit more than you feel you
    need). If you don't YOUR MUSCLES WILL NOT GROW.

    Supplements are another story. Research has shown that only drugs will make your muscles grow beyond 'normal'. Other supplements do have their place. It is important that your body has all the nutrients it needs - any less will slow your progress. There may be a very slight advantage to getting a little more of some things than your body needs - but there is little doubt that if your body is not getting enough of something it will hurt your progress. For example, most people are known to be deficient in
    Zinc (there is not enough of it in our diets), in which case it has been proven that supplemental Zinc will increase the testosterone levels (in men). It has also been shown that taking twice as much as you need will not be of benefit - and may even have adverse effects on your health.

    INFORMATION

    This training information is the result of over 50 years of research on PRE - - by hundreds of researchers. They know what their talking about. There are two important last points to make , researchers will be the first to tell you that everything is not known about the best way to train - but any improvements made on what is currently known - about training methods - will be very slight. Every possible combination of training methods (within reason), have been studied. If big improvements are to be
    made in 'muscle building', it will be in areas other than training.

    The PLATEAU

    Now the bad news - if you train correctly you will 'level off'. The
    training methods covered here have been shown to be better (produce faster and better results), than any other researched training methods. (Again, it is possible that slight variations will be found to have some slight benefit). Here's what to expect - if your train correctly for maximum growth you will make very fast gains for the first 3 to 6 months. At this point you will gradually start to taper off - after two years of training you can expect the gains to come very slowly - at some point, to be totally honest, further 'overall' gains will be almost impossible unless you take anabolic steroids or other types of anabolic drugs. (Which I do
    not recommend). This does not mean that you can't continue to improve your appearance. It is at this time that you should start paying more attention to your weak areas, your diet, etc. - you can always improve - and hope - that more can be learned on how to increase muscle size through natural methods - without the use of steroids.

    LAST NOTE: SHORT ON TIME?

    A 1 rep max (1 RM), done once a week, (after warm up) - has been shown to be very effective in increasing strength and size during 6 week studies.

    REFERENCES

    PRIMARY SOURCE:

    McArdle, W.D., and Katch, F.I., and Katch, V.L., Exercise Physiology, fourth edition, Williams and Wilkins, 1996. (includes 178 source referencences pertaining to the above subject).

    Other References:

    Guyton, A.C., Function of the Human Body, fourth edition, Saunders, 1974. Nobel, B.J., Physiology of Exercise and Sport, Times Mirror/Mosby, 1986. Hendler, S.S., The Doctors' Vitamin and Mineral Encyclopedia, Simon and Schuster, 1990.
    Hatfield, F.C., Bodybuilding a Scientific Approach, Contemporary, 1984.
    Last edited by MonStar1023; 12-09-2001 at 09:04 AM.

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  3. #2
    MA's Bionic Creation syntekz's Avatar
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    Re: Article On Muscle Growth.. Total Bullshit?

    Originally posted by MonStar1023
    Examples (if you dont want to read entire article):
    • 3 sets are the best

      I think arnold used to say this same thing.

    • Movement should be fast (real shocker for me)

      me too!
    • include 10rep max atleast once (10 rep range supposedly builds lots of muscle).

      sounds right
    • Train muscle up to 3 times per week (novices can train one muscle 5x per week... I did that and gained 20 pounds!!!)

      meaning train 3 times/week or train each muscle 3 times a week?
    • training when muscles are 'sore' may help speed recovery and is recommended - however you should not train to the point of causing 'pain' (or if you are already in 'pain')

      this is true.

    [/i]

    By the way, I didn't read the article.

  4. #3
    Cardio bunny Alex.V's Avatar
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    Re: Re: Article On Muscle Growth.. Total Bullshit?

    Originally posted by syntekz



    By the way, I didn't read the article

    Why'd you comment, then?
    "Except Belial. He knows everything. This isn't a sarcastic attack, either. He really knows everything." -----Organichu
    "Alex is all knowing and perfect"-----Jane (loosely paraphrased)
    -515/745/700 bench/deadlift/squat
    Current mile time: 4:23
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  5. #4
    Senior Member MonStar1023's Avatar
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    Belial-
    What do you think of this article bro?

    I dont know what I think some things sound pretty reasonable but others sound ridiculous. Training a specific muscle group up to 5x per week.. ?>


  6. #5
    MA's Bionic Creation syntekz's Avatar
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    Re: Re: Re: Article On Muscle Growth.. Total Bullshit?

    Originally posted by Belial
    Why'd you comment, then?
    "Examples (if you dont want to read entire article): "


    Couldn't figure that out on your own?

  7. #6
    Cardio bunny Alex.V's Avatar
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    Re: Re: Re: Re: Article On Muscle Growth.. Total Bullshit?

    Originally posted by syntekz


    Couldn't figure that out on your own?
    Back off, little boy.
    Last edited by Alex.V; 12-09-2001 at 09:30 AM.
    "Except Belial. He knows everything. This isn't a sarcastic attack, either. He really knows everything." -----Organichu
    "Alex is all knowing and perfect"-----Jane (loosely paraphrased)
    -515/745/700 bench/deadlift/squat
    Current mile time: 4:23
    Marathons: 3
    Century races: 3
    Ironmans: 1
    Ultramarathons: 1
    Current supps: http://www.atlargenutrition.com/prod...covery/results

  8. #7
    Senior Member MonStar1023's Avatar
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    Anyway.. back to the article.. what's everyone's opinion on it? Is some of the information valid or what?

    Paul, Hulk, Chris..?


  9. #8
    Cardio bunny Alex.V's Avatar
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    Monstar, I need to go look at it again. I don't like it, and there are many reasons for it. One word: Generalizations.

    Any time an article speaks in absolutes, it puts up a red flag. Besides the fact that some of the "research" is sketchy at best, and the conclusions drawn from it are therefore a little suspect. (read: bullshit. "no difference has been shown between taking a 1 min. or 5 min. rest - in terms of growth and strength increases - the choice is yours. All sets should be done to the point where another rep is not possible. " Err....right. )

    The few part I completely agree with are essentially common knowledge.

    I don't have time to go through it now, I've just popped a few xenadrine and am twitching like a mofo, but I'm sure there are plenty of folks here who would love to tear it apart.
    "Except Belial. He knows everything. This isn't a sarcastic attack, either. He really knows everything." -----Organichu
    "Alex is all knowing and perfect"-----Jane (loosely paraphrased)
    -515/745/700 bench/deadlift/squat
    Current mile time: 4:23
    Marathons: 3
    Century races: 3
    Ironmans: 1
    Ultramarathons: 1
    Current supps: http://www.atlargenutrition.com/prod...covery/results

  10. #9
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    Re: Article On Muscle Growth.. Total Bullshit?

    Originally posted by MonStar1023
    I just stumbled upon this muscle growth study/article over @ Elite.
    The fact that it came from Elite is a problem. That is a chat site, not a bodybuilding one.

    I personally disagree with the rep speed thing. I rarely see someone lifting quickly with proper form. If you're a powerlifter, it's one thing. It's usually meatheads who want people in the gym to see how many plates they can bench, and thinking they're gonna grow....Now show me someone that benches 3 plates a side for 3 seconds each way, controls the turnarounds, and squeezes thier chest together hard on each rep, I'll be impressed.

  11. #10
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    Re: Article On Muscle Growth.. Total Bullshit?

    Originally posted by MonStar1023
    I REFERENCES

    PRIMARY SOURCE:

    McArdle, W.D., and Katch, F.I., and Katch, V.L., Exercise Physiology, fourth edition, Williams and Wilkins, 1996. (includes 178 source referencences pertaining to the above subject).

    Other References:

    .[/i]
    well I have that book and do not interprete it the way its written here.

    medical research is different to BB research, as medical research is aimed more about rehibiltation then its is for breaking boundaries.

    As for supp not being effective, loads of advert reference used from studies on people being rehibiltated. though a protein supp is going to be less useful for some one who is doing light exercise while wiehging 120 pounds compared to a BB who weighs like 240 pounds. who prtoen requirements are going to be so much higher.
    my exprience - joined gym 10 years ago, 6 1/2 years hard weight training exprience.

  12. #11
    Proud Father Maki Riddington's Avatar
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    It's to long, if no one else has a go at it I'll rip it apart.
    Maki Fit Blog

    At Large: Optimize Your Body | Dynamic Conditioning |
    My articles on Wannabebig

    "Soli Deo Gloria"
    "Test all things; hold fast what is good.": 1 Thessalonians 5:21

    "I do not understand what I do. For what I want to do I do not do, but what I hate I do. And if I do what I do not want to do, I agree that the law is good. As it is, it is no longer I myself who do it, but it is sin living in me. I know that nothing good lives in me, that is, in my sinful nature. For I have the desire to do what is good, but I cannot carry it out. For what I do is not the good I want to do; no, the evil I do not want to do--this I keep on doing. Now if I do what I do not want to do, it is no longer I who do it, but it is sin living in me that does it.
    So I find this law at work: When I want to do good, evil is right there with me. For in my inner being I delight in God's law; but I see another law at work in the members of my body, waging war against the law of my mind and making me a prisoner of the law of sin at work within my members. What a wretched man I am! Who will rescue me from this body of death? Thanks be to God--through Jesus Christ our Lord!"
    Romans 7:14-25

    "Judo is not about strength. Yet in the learning curve, all Judokas get strong. Only with time do you learn where to apply that strength."
    The Art of Judo

  13. #12
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    Re: Article On Muscle Growth.. Total Bullshit?

    [QUOTE]Originally posted by MonStar1023
    [BTHE BEST WAY TO TRAIN FOR SIZE
    by Walter Eddy

    Many bodybuilders know less about 'weight training' than Medical rehab personal and Professional Sport Coaches. Ironic? - yes, after all - bodybuilding is weightlifting. Yet bodybuilders tend to seek out information from anyone who promises to make them big, tell them the secret on how to get big like the Pro bodybuilders - when the only secret is that steroids are the ONLY way to get that kinda big.

    *****walter have you read this site? NO. It require more than steroids to get that big. the author is dismissing genetic, foods etc here. also determiantion, most poeple are not that dedicated to getting big. *********

    So what do Pro Sport Coaches and Med. rehab people know that you may not - that's what is about to be covered, so pay attention if you want to know the truth - go elsewhere if you're looking for a bunch of golden promises.

    ********people who do not have hidden agenda of selling supps and equipement often give good advice. but that does not mean they do not know anything they just want to make money*****

    Very little money has been spent on 'bodybuilding' research. On the other hand millions have been spent on ways to improve the performance of Pro and 'Olympic' athletes. Not to mention the years of research put into studying muscle rehabilitation for medical purposes. It is from these sources that the real information on getting 'big' (as big as is possible with or without steroids), can be found. The information is out there, you just have to look for it - the important facts to you, the bodybuilder, will be covered in this article.

    ******i forgot rehab poeple were bigger than BB's. lots of people look at different sports to get big as well.*******

    Training/growth facts - what the studies prove.

    The goal of every bodybuilder is to get bigger muscles. With this goal in mind lets cover what research has taught us - and how to put it to use.

    FIRST: Muscle strength****who need strenght to get big***** in the adult human is relative to cross section area (size). An equal cross-sectional area of muscle from any average trained women or man has about the same 'strength' (i.e.: can generate the same amount of force, 6 kg - cm2), there is very little variation. To put it another way, generally speaking - all human muscle tissue has (about)
    the same amount of strength, or is able to generate the same amount of force. So the greater the size, cross-sectional, the greater the strength. However, it is important to point out that bone structure, muscle attachments, neural factors, etc., play a very important part in performing 'feats of strength', so two people with equal cross section areas of muscle may still perform very differently -- not due to stronger muscle tissue, but due to other factors.

    ****assuming the fast twitch and slow twitch muscle fibre are in the same ratio********

    What does this mean to the bodybuilder - it means that if you wish to increase muscle mass you must train the muscle to be able to generate more force - which in turn means the muscle must grow. Don't confuse increasing muscle size with increasing performance strength - performance strength - for example the amount of weight a person can bench press - depends on a number of factors - neural factors being very important.
    Increasing muscle size will help increase performance strength -- but increasing performance strength does not necessarily mean that you will increase muscle size. That may sound confusing - re-read the paragraph before this one again if you still do not understand.

    ****most people on this site are aware of this******


    I have started it for you maki - but it is long.
    my exprience - joined gym 10 years ago, 6 1/2 years hard weight training exprience.

  14. #13
    Senior Member Accipiter's Avatar
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    "Working a muscle that is sore - even one that has been injured - will cause the muscle to recover much more rapidly that resting the muscle"

    ??? that makes little if any sense. I could understand saying stretching would help, but actually working it?? they then go on to say that you shouldn't work muscles more than 3 times a week..seems contradictory.

  15. #14
    Senior Member MonStar1023's Avatar
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    I know thats what I was thinking. Its just amazing that such an article would even exists. Maybe this is one of the reasons many people that dont get the results that they desire. Any "novice" that tries to train their chest 5x per week will make absolutely NO progress AT ALL in my opinion...


  16. #15
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    Originally posted by Accipiter
    "Working a muscle that is sore - even one that has been injured - will cause the muscle to recover much more rapidly that resting the muscle"

    ??? that makes little if any sense. I could understand saying stretching would help, but actually working it?? they then go on to say that you shouldn't work muscles more than 3 times a week..seems contradictory.
    well soreness is a technically a injury. as you rest to allow the damage to be repaired.
    he may mean do cardio on a soar muscle to help get blood flow etc and help it feel better as quite a few people here do cardio on sore muscle and feel better as a result. But if he means to trian hard and heavy weights on it. Then he does not know anything about recovery and I would ignore everything else he wrote as does not know what he is talking about.

    Also what type of injury and how bad it is? i forgot when i go to hospital i see people who have just been in crash in the gym squating the next day. In hospital they get people to start exercising when healed, but have high levels of atrophy which is a different matter and they will quickly get hypertrophy from just about any movement. But if a bb take three months off they will atrophy and get quick (re)gains when start trianing again.
    my exprience - joined gym 10 years ago, 6 1/2 years hard weight training exprience.

  17. #16
    Gaglione Strength Chris Rodgers's Avatar
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    Re: Re: Article On Muscle Growth.. Total Bullshit?

    Originally posted by beercan
    I personally disagree with the rep speed thing. I rarely see someone lifting quickly with proper form. If you're a powerlifter, it's one thing. It's usually meatheads who want people in the gym to see how many plates they can bench, and thinking they're gonna grow....Now show me someone that benches 3 plates a side for 3 seconds each way, controls the turnarounds, and squeezes thier chest together hard on each rep, I'll be impressed.

    My muscles are gonna be aching for days when we start to train bro. I better grow biatch!
    Best Meet Lifts(Raw w/wraps):
    @165- 435 SQ 270 BE 560 DL.....1255 total
    @181- 535 SQ 300 BE 570 DL.....1400 total
    Best Meet Lifts(Multi-ply):
    @148- 575 SQ 315 BE 515 DL.....1400 total
    @165- 680 SQ 380 BE 540 DL.....1555 total
    @181- 700 SQ 375 BE 535 DL.....1605 total
    Best Gym Lifts(Raw w/wraps)
    545 SQ 305 BE 585 DL

  18. #17
    Proud Father Maki Riddington's Avatar
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    [QUOTE]Originally posted by MonStar1023
    [B]I[i]THE BEST WAY TO TRAIN FOR SIZE
    by Walter Eddy

    Many bodybuilders know less about 'weight training' than Medical rehab personal and Professional Sport Coaches. Ironic? - yes, after all - bodybuilding is weightlifting.

    *** Actually weighlifting is a term many people don't realize they are mixing up with strength training. Weighlifting is usually referring to Olympic weightlifting. Bodybuilding is simply building ones body up.


    Yet bodybuilders tend to seek out information from anyone who promises to make them big, tell them the secret on how to get big like the Pro bodybuilders - when the only secret is that steroids are the ONLY way to get that kinda big.

    *** Determination, dedication, heart, genetics etc....
    Not just steroids.

    So what do Pro Sport Coaches and Med. rehab people know that you may not - that's what is about to be covered, so pay attention if you want to know the truth - go elsewhere if you're looking for a bunch of golden promises.

    Very little money has been spent on 'bodybuilding' research. On the other hand millions have been spent on ways to improve the performance of Pro and 'Olympic' athletes. Not to mention the years of research put into studying muscle rehabilitation for medical purposes. It is from these sources that the real information on getting 'big' (as big as is possible with or without steroids), can be found. The information is out there, you just have to look for it - the important facts to you, the bodybuilder, will be covered in this article.

    Training/growth facts - what the studies prove.

    The goal of every bodybuilder is to get bigger muscles. With this goal in mind lets cover what research has taught us - and how to put it to use.

    FIRST: Muscle strength in the adult human is relative to cross section area (size). An equal cross-sectional area of muscle from any average trained women or man has about the same 'strength' (i.e.: can generate the same amount of force, 6 kg - cm2), there is very little variation. To put it another way, generally speaking - all human muscle tissue has (about)
    the same amount of strength, or is able to generate the same amount of force. So the greater the size, cross-sectional, the greater the strength. However, it is important to point out that bone structure, muscle attachments, neural factors, etc., play a very important part in performing 'feats of strength', so two people with equal cross section areas of muscle may still perform very differently -- not due to stronger muscle tissue, but due to other factors.

    What does this mean to the bodybuilder - it means that if you wish to increase muscle mass you must train the muscle to be able to generate more force - which in turn means the muscle must grow.

    *** Even if one were to follow these directions muscle hypertrophy may not be the end result. Simply saying that more force equals greater muscle mass is a generalization.
    The body has many systems, failure of one of these sytems to adapt will halt the muscle hypertrophy process.

    Don't confuse increasing muscle size with increasing performance strength - performance strength - for example the amount of weight a person can bench press - depends on a number of factors - neural factors being very important.
    Increasing muscle size will help increase performance strength -- but increasing performance strength does not necessarily mean that you will increase muscle size. That may sound confusing - re-read the paragraph before this one again if you still do not understand.

    Putting this information to use. To increase muscle size (or mass), you must increase the cross sectional area. Because there is a limit to the amount of force (strength) a set cross-sectional area of muscle can generate -muscle tissue must increase in size (cross-sectional area) to be able to handle a greater force (to become 'stronger') - the result: bigger muscles. So the best way to make your muscle bigger - - train in such a way as to increase the amount of force you can generate - and, of course, to make the muscle grow as fast as possible. This last statement 'as fast
    as possible' is another key term - most types of resistance training will cause your muscles to grow, the question you should be asking is, is this the fastest way? You will find the best answers research has to offer here.

    Applying this information to your training.

    This is where powerlifters, bodybuilders and endurance athletes part ways. The goal of an endurance athlete is not to increase muscle mass - the goal of a powerlifter is to be able to generate as much power as possible - the goal of a bodybuilder is to increase muscle size as much as possible. Some training principals apply to all three, but there are also some significant differences. What will be covered here is the best way to get 'big'.

    SIDE NOTE: The untrained muscle responds much better than the trained muscle. This simply means that the untrained person will experience much faster gains in strength and growth than the person who has several months of GOOD training under there belt. This is a well known fact - not someone's opinion.

    TRAINING FOR GROWTH

    First - be sure NOT to skip the above material - the above facts play an important part in understanding how to train correctly for growth.

    Different types of exercises will not be covered here - why? - the type ofexercise you do (i.e.: push-ups, sit-ups, presses, curls, etc.) have nothing to do with growth - - they determine which muscle(s) receive the stimulation. The 'method' you use is what will cause your muscle to become bigger, stronger, faster, etc.. Let's make sure this is clear, as many people do not understand this, and it is an important point - it is HOW you train - NOT the exercise itself - - that cause muscles to grow.

    Research on muscle recovery for medical reasons has been done for hundreds of years now - that's correct - 100's. Research was greatly stepped up after World War 2 - it was at this time that the benefits of resistance training began to be understood. Over the last 20 years the benefits of resistance training have been greatly accepted and researched. Over the last few years new types of testing methods - and computers - have come a
    long way in finding the best - and fastest - way to 'build' muscle. Why is this important to people other than bodybuilders? - in the Medical community the information is considered important so that patients in rehabilitation may recover as quickly as possible. In sports it is important because it is now known that resistance training can enhance all types of performance. This is where the research is being done - and why. Bodybuilders are still on the bottom of the list - but are still included in some studies - not to help 'bodybuilders' - but to gain more understanding of muscle growth.

    So what does research tell us - some of this you may know - some may surprise you. PRE - or Progressive Resistance training - is considered the best method of training for size.

    *** Even though some may disagree there is not one "best" method out there.

    Before you say 'big deal' read on - PRE has changed much over the years. It was first started by DeLorme, T.L. who did the research on it (Restoration of muscle power by heavy-resistance exercise. J. Bone Joint Surg. 27:645,1945). Many of the principles still hold true - but many refinements have been made as well.

    THE BEST WAY TO TRAIN FOR SIZE - WHAT RESEARCH HAS SHOWN

    SETS

    2 sets (of maximum effort), are far more effective that 1 (fastest
    increases in growth and strength), and it appears that 3 sets are slightly more beneficial than doing 2. There is no evidence that doing more that 3 sets will help - or hurt.

    *** Where is the reference? I think it's safe to say that whatever study the writer is quoting he was reading too much into it.
    The writer also fails to understand that training for different fibre types can't be done with only two sets efficiently.

    Rest between sets should be at least 1 min. and no more than 5 min. - no difference has been shown between taking a 1 min. or 5 min.

    *** I wonder if the writer understands that the energy systems that are involved here take more than 1 minute to recover and even then it varies among people.

    rest - in terms of growth and strength increases - the choice is yours. All sets should be done to the point where another rep is not
    possible. (Warm up sets should be done first).

    *** Failure is not a prerequesite for growth.

    REPS

    Reps ranging from 3 to 12 are all considered good variations - this is not news to anyone - however this may be - it appears to be important to do at least one set of 10 RM each session. (I'm not going to go into details on this - this is what studies have concluded - take it or leave it). For those who do not understand - this means that you should do one set with enough weight so that you are only capable of doing 10 reps. You may mix
    up the sequence any way you like, examples: 3-6-10; 12-11-10; 3-10-12; 10-10-10. Any combination is acceptable - just do 1 set of 10 RM each time. (Side note: I myself am not exactly clear on the point of doing one set of 10 each session but shall continue to research this point - I believe that it may be important as a 'control' as much as any other factor.)

    *** If the writer does not have a clear grasp of why people should be doing what he is preaching then I have a hard time believing him.


    *** I'm sure others will have a blast reading this bit of misinformation.
    PROGRESSIVE
    Maki Fit Blog

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    My articles on Wannabebig

    "Soli Deo Gloria"
    "Test all things; hold fast what is good.": 1 Thessalonians 5:21

    "I do not understand what I do. For what I want to do I do not do, but what I hate I do. And if I do what I do not want to do, I agree that the law is good. As it is, it is no longer I myself who do it, but it is sin living in me. I know that nothing good lives in me, that is, in my sinful nature. For I have the desire to do what is good, but I cannot carry it out. For what I do is not the good I want to do; no, the evil I do not want to do--this I keep on doing. Now if I do what I do not want to do, it is no longer I who do it, but it is sin living in me that does it.
    So I find this law at work: When I want to do good, evil is right there with me. For in my inner being I delight in God's law; but I see another law at work in the members of my body, waging war against the law of my mind and making me a prisoner of the law of sin at work within my members. What a wretched man I am! Who will rescue me from this body of death? Thanks be to God--through Jesus Christ our Lord!"
    Romans 7:14-25

    "Judo is not about strength. Yet in the learning curve, all Judokas get strong. Only with time do you learn where to apply that strength."
    The Art of Judo

  19. #18
    Simply Devious Rastaman's Avatar
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    Re: Article On Muscle Growth.. Total Bullshit?

    Originally posted by MonStar1023

    The PLATEAU

    Now the bad news - if you train correctly you will 'level off'. The
    training methods covered here have been shown to be better (produce faster and better results), than any other researched training methods. (Again, it is possible that slight variations will be found to have some slight benefit). Here's what to expect - if your train correctly for maximum growth you will make very fast gains for the first 3 to 6 months. At this point you will gradually start to taper off - after two years of training you can expect the gains to come very slowly - at some point, to be totally honest, further 'overall' gains will be almost impossible unless you take anabolic steroids or other types of anabolic drugs. (Which I do
    not recommend). This does not mean that you can't continue to improve your appearance. It is at this time that you should start paying more attention to your weak areas, your diet, etc. - you can always improve - and hope - that more can be learned on how to increase muscle size through natural methods - without the use of steroids.

    [/B]

    What do you guys think about that? I hit a plateau myself after my first six months of incredible gains... but after a few months of determined lifting I began seeing big gains again.

  20. #19
    As I Am Paul Stagg's Avatar
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    THE BEST WAY TO TRAIN FOR SIZE
    by Walter Eddy

    Many bodybuilders know less about 'weight training' than Medical rehab personal and Professional Sport Coaches. Ironic? - yes, after all - bodybuilding is weightlifting. Yet bodybuilders tend to seek out information from anyone who promises to make them big, tell them the secret on how to get big like the Pro bodybuilders - when the only secret is that steroids are the ONLY way to get that kinda big.

    ** True that most bodybuilders are clueless, but steroids are not the only secret.

    So what do Pro Sport Coaches and Med. rehab people know that you may not - that's what is about to be covered, so pay attention if you want to know the truth - go elsewhere if you're looking for a bunch of golden promises.

    Very little money has been spent on 'bodybuilding' research. On the other hand millions have been spent on ways to improve the performance of Pro and 'Olympic' athletes. Not to mention the years of research put into studying muscle rehabilitation for medical purposes. It is from these sources that the real information on getting 'big' (as big as is possible with or without steroids), can be found. The information is out there, you just have to look for it - the important facts to you, the bodybuilder, will be covered in this article.

    ** This, so far, is reasonable.

    Training/growth facts - what the studies prove.

    The goal of every bodybuilder is to get bigger muscles. With this goal in mind lets cover what research has taught us - and how to put it to use.

    FIRST: Muscle strength in the adult human is relative to cross section area (size). An equal cross-sectional area of muscle from any average trained women or man has about the same 'strength' (i.e.: can generate the same amount of force, 6 kg - cm2), there is very little variation. To put it another way, generally speaking - all human muscle tissue has (about)
    the same amount of strength, or is able to generate the same amount of force. So the greater the size, cross-sectional, the greater the strength. However, it is important to point out that bone structure, muscle attachments, neural factors, etc., play a very important part in performing 'feats of strength', so two people with equal cross section areas of muscle may still perform very differently -- not due to stronger muscle tissue, but due to other factors.

    ** 'kay.

    What does this mean to the bodybuilder - it means that if you wish to increase muscle mass you must train the muscle to be able to generate more force - which in turn means the muscle must grow. Don't confuse increasing muscle size with increasing performance strength - performance strength - for example the amount of weight a person can bench press - depends on a number of factors - neural factors being very important.
    Increasing muscle size will help increase performance strength -- but increasing performance strength does not necessarily mean that you will increase muscle size. That may sound confusing - re-read the paragraph before this one again if you still do not understand.

    ** Pretty simple. The individual muscle must get stronger.

    Putting this information to use. To increase muscle size (or mass), you must increase the cross sectional area. Because there is a limit to the amount of force (strength) a set cross-sectional area of muscle can generate -muscle tissue must increase in size (cross-sectional area) to be able to handle a greater force (to become 'stronger') - the result: bigger muscles. So the best way to make your muscle bigger - - train in such a way as to increase the amount of force you can generate - and, of course, to make the muscle grow as fast as possible. This last statement 'as fast
    as possible' is another key term - most types of resistance training will cause your muscles to grow, the question you should be asking is, is this the fastest way? You will find the best answers research has to offer here.

    ** 'kay

    Applying this information to your training.

    This is where powerlifters, bodybuilders and endurance athletes part ways. The goal of an endurance athlete is not to increase muscle mass - the goal of a powerlifter is to be able to generate as much power as possible - the goal of a bodybuilder is to increase muscle size as much as possible. Some training principals apply to all three, but there are also some significant differences. What will be covered here is the best way to get 'big'.

    SIDE NOTE: The untrained muscle responds much better than the trained muscle. This simply means that the untrained person will experience much faster gains in strength and growth than the person who has several months of GOOD training under there belt. This is a well known fact - not someone's opinion.

    TRAINING FOR GROWTH

    First - be sure NOT to skip the above material - the above facts play an important part in understanding how to train correctly for growth.

    ** Well, they weren't earth shattering...

    Different types of exercises will not be covered here - why? - the type ofexercise you do (i.e.: push-ups, sit-ups, presses, curls, etc.) have nothing to do with growth - - they determine which muscle(s) receive the stimulation. The 'method' you use is what will cause your muscle to become bigger, stronger, faster, etc.. Let's make sure this is clear, as many people do not understand this, and it is an important point - it is HOW you train - NOT the exercise itself - - that cause muscles to grow.


    ** OK.


    Research on muscle recovery for medical reasons has been done for hundreds of years now - that's correct - 100's. Research was greatly stepped up after World War 2 - it was at this time that the benefits of resistance training began to be understood. Over the last 20 years the benefits of resistance training have been greatly accepted and researched. Over the last few years new types of testing methods - and computers - have come a
    long way in finding the best - and fastest - way to 'build' muscle. Why is this important to people other than bodybuilders? - in the Medical community the information is considered important so that patients in rehabilitation may recover as quickly as possible. In sports it is important because it is now known that resistance training can enhance all types of performance. This is where the research is being done - and why. Bodybuilders are still on the bottom of the list - but are still included in some studies - not to help 'bodybuilders' - but to gain more understanding of muscle growth.

    So what does research tell us - some of this you may know - some may surprise you. PRE - or Progressive Resistance training - is considered the best method of training for size. Before you say 'big deal' read on - PRE has changed much over the years. It was first started by DeLorme, T.L. who did the research on it (Restoration of muscle power by heavy-resistance exercise. J. Bone Joint Surg. 27:645,1945). Many of the principles still hold true - but many refinements have been made as well.

    THE BEST WAY TO TRAIN FOR SIZE - WHAT RESEARCH HAS SHOWN

    SETS

    2 sets (of maximum effort), are far more effective that 1 (fastest
    increases in growth and strength), and it appears that 3 sets are slightly more beneficial than doing 2. There is no evidence that doing more that 3 sets will help - or hurt. Rest between sets should be at least 1 min. and no more than 5 min. - no difference has been shown between taking a 1 min. or 5 min. rest - in terms of growth and strength increases - the choice is yours. All sets should be done to the point where another rep is not
    possible. (Warm up sets should be done first).

    ** This would be far more meaningful if he put footnotes in so we knew where this info came from. I'm familiar with the study that showed 3 sets is no better than 1 set, and the study was crap. Now, this isn't horrible advice, but it isn't set in stone. There are a multitude of factors that can influence this.

    REPS

    Reps ranging from 3 to 12 are all considered good variations - this is not news to anyone - however this may be - it appears to be important to do at least one set of 10 RM each session. (I'm not going to go into details on this - this is what studies have concluded - take it or leave it).

    ** Well, then, I'll leave it.

    For those who do not understand - this means that you should do one set with enough weight so that you are only capable of doing 10 reps. You may mix
    up the sequence any way you like, examples: 3-6-10; 12-11-10; 3-10-12; 10-10-10. Any combination is acceptable - just do 1 set of 10 RM each time. (Side note: I myself am not exactly clear on the point of doing one set of 10 each session but shall continue to research this point - I believe that it may be important as a 'control' as much as any other factor.)

    ** Am I reading this correctly - he's saying he doesn't know why 10 reps is best, but it just is?

    PROGRESSIVE

    The progressive part of PRE means that it is very important to increase your 'load' on a weekly basis. Your 10 RM is the control. You must increase the amount of weight you use for your 10 RM each week by at least a small amount

    ** This is how you get stronger... but it doesn't have to be the 10 RM, or any RM.

    SPEED

    Shocker number two - it has been shown that fast movements (contractions), produce the greatest increases in strength and growth.

    ** Again, I would like to know where this study is.

    This really should not come as a surprise. The speed of movement when lifting a weight that you are only capable of doing 10 reps with, even performing the reps as fast as possible with good form, is still very slow compared to many sports movements - such as swinging a bat, throwing a ball, running - etc. The concentric part of the movement should be done as fast as possible - however this does not mean to 'jerk' the weight - it is also very important that the movement be done in a 'smooth' manner. This is important - 'jerking' the weight may cause an increase in strength due to neural factors - but it is not the best way to increase muscle size.

    ** Fast, but smooth. I need to know at what point the movement goes from being fast to being jerky.

    FREQUENCY

    Benefits from PRE can be achieved by training a muscle(s) as little as once a week. The best results for the TRAINED individual APPEAR to be training a muscle no more than 3 times a week, HOWEVER THIS IS NOT CONCLUSIVE - it is possible that training more or less may have a SMALL advantage - the new trainer can get best results training a muscle up to 5 times a week.. Another possible shocker - training when muscles are 'sore' may help speed recovery and is recommended - however you should not
    train to the point of causing 'pain' (or if you are already in 'pain').
    Working a muscle that is sore - even one that has been injured - will cause the muscle to recover much more rapidly that resting the muscle - you must know the difference between pain and soreness however - and should not do anything that will cause pain. (If you are recovering from an injury please be sure to follow your Doctors instructions.)

    ** need a source for this. And working an injured muscle could be the WORST thing to do.

    NUTRITION and SUPPLEMENTS

    Nutrition is a very important part of getting 'big'. This should be very simple to understand but still many people don't. If you want to build a house there is one thing YOU HAVE TO HAVE - materials. If you want to build muscle you have to feed them - plain and simple. To gain mass you have to eat more than your body needs - or at least the exact amount that it needs for energy, repair, etc. (because there is no way of knowing your exact needs it is wise to eat a bit more than you feel you
    need). If you don't YOUR MUSCLES WILL NOT GROW.

    ** Nothing earth shattering here.

    Supplements are another story. Research has shown that only drugs will make your muscles grow beyond 'normal'.

    ** Normal?

    Other supplements do have their place. It is important that your body has all the nutrients it needs - any less will slow your progress. There may be a very slight advantage to getting a little more of some things than your body needs - but there is little doubt that if your body is not getting enough of something it will hurt your progress. For example, most people are known to be deficient in
    Zinc (there is not enough of it in our diets), in which case it has been proven that supplemental Zinc will increase the testosterone levels (in men). It has also been shown that taking twice as much as you need will not be of benefit - and may even have adverse effects on your health.

    ** most people are Zinc deficient?

    INFORMATION

    This training information is the result of over 50 years of research on PRE - - by hundreds of researchers. They know what their talking about. There are two important last points to make , researchers will be the first to tell you that everything is not known about the best way to train - but any improvements made on what is currently known - about training methods - will be very slight. Every possible combination of training methods (within reason), have been studied. If big improvements are to be
    made in 'muscle building', it will be in areas other than training.

    ** Bull. they have not been 'studied' in meaningful ways.

    The PLATEAU

    Now the bad news - if you train correctly you will 'level off'. The
    training methods covered here have been shown to be better (produce faster and better results), than any other researched training methods. (Again, it is possible that slight variations will be found to have some slight benefit). Here's what to expect - if your train correctly for maximum growth you will make very fast gains for the first 3 to 6 months. At this point you will gradually start to taper off - after two years of training you can expect the gains to come very slowly - at some point, to be totally honest, further 'overall' gains will be almost impossible unless you take anabolic steroids or other types of anabolic drugs. (Which I do
    not recommend). This does not mean that you can't continue to improve your appearance. It is at this time that you should start paying more attention to your weak areas, your diet, etc. - you can always improve - and hope - that more can be learned on how to increase muscle size through natural methods - without the use of steroids.

    ** this seems to contradict what the theme of the article is.


    LAST NOTE: SHORT ON TIME?

    A 1 rep max (1 RM), done once a week, (after warm up) - has been shown to be very effective in increasing strength and size during 6 week studies.

    ** Again, a note would be nice.

    REFERENCES

    PRIMARY SOURCE:

    McArdle, W.D., and Katch, F.I., and Katch, V.L., Exercise Physiology, fourth edition, Williams and Wilkins, 1996. (includes 178 source referencences pertaining to the above subject).

    Other References:

    Guyton, A.C., Function of the Human Body, fourth edition, Saunders, 1974. Nobel, B.J., Physiology of Exercise and Sport, Times Mirror/Mosby, 1986. Hendler, S.S., The Doctors' Vitamin and Mineral Encyclopedia, Simon and Schuster, 1990.
    Hatfield, F.C., Bodybuilding a Scientific Approach, Contemporary, 1984.

    ** These references are nice, but we still need to see where, exactly, this info comes from. This article appears to have been written and researched by a high school student. (not to bash high school students, but had I turned something like this in while working on my graduate degree.... i'd still be working on my graduate degree.
    Squats work better than supplements.
    "You know, if I thought like that, I'd never put more than one plate on the bar for anything, I'd never use bands or chains, I'd never squat to parallel or below, and I'd never let out the slightest grunt when I lift. At some point in your lifting career (assuming you're planning on getting reasonably strong and big), you're going to have to accept that most people think you are some kind of freak." -Sensei
    "You're wrong, and I have a completely irrelevant pubmed abstract that may or may not say so." - Belial
    I has a blog.
    I has a facebook.

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