Recently, despite knowing better, I've had reoccuring shoulder issues that have come from neglecting shoulder work... This is not complete, but I thought some of you might find it helpful.

There are a number of on-line tutorials that go over the muscles of the shoulder, their origins and insertions, and their functions. Here is one that is easy to read and use:

Perhaps more important than understanding the muscles of the shoulder is understanding the movements of the shoulder joint and girdle and then setting out to strengthen them.

The movements that will be trained by the exercise pictures that follow will include:

arm abduction - raising the arm up and away from the body as in a lateral raise.

arm adduction - pulling the arm down to the body as in the eccentric phase of a lateral raise.

arm horizontal abduction - pulling the arms out away from the body as in a bent-over lateral raise.

arm horizontal adduction - pulling the arms in front of the body as in dumbell flyes.

arm flexion - raising the arms in front of the body as in a front raise.

arm extension - pulling the arms down to the sides of the body as in a straight arm pull down.

arm hyperextension - pulling the arms back behind the body as in the final portion of a swimming stroke before the overwater recovery.

arm inward rotation - rotation of the arm in towards the body as in an internal rotation exercise.

arm outward rotation - rotation of the arm away from the body as in external rotation exercise.

scapula adduction - scapula pulling together towards the center of the body as in a prone shrug.

scapula abduction - scapula pulling apart as in a lat spread.

scapula outward rotation - scapula rotating out and upwards as in an overhead shrug.

scapula inward rotation - scapula rotating down and inward as when doing a pulldown.

scapula elevation - scapula rising upward as in a traditional shrug.

scapula depression - scapula lowering as in a reverse shrug.


Bent Over Front Raise


Bent Over Laterals

Chest Supported Shrug

Pulldown Shrug

Overhead Shrug

External Rotator #1

External Rotator #2

Internal Rotator

pics still to come (bench press shrugs, dip shrugs, rows, snatch)